culture

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culture

The norms and shared attitudes that pervade an ORGANIZATION. It may be expressed in symbols, rituals and the language used by organization members. It thus constitutes the distinctive characteristics of an organization. In recent years managerial interest in organizational culture has grown enormously It is believed that the culture will influence how individuals behave at work and hence will affect both individual and organizational performances.

A number of types of culture have been identified in this respect:

  1. power culture, characterized by an emphasis on personal charisma, risk-taking and a low level of respect for procedures. This might be found in a small entrepreneurial organization, where power tends to be concentrated in the entrepreneur;
  2. rôle culture, characterized by well-defined procedures and job roles, and an emphasis on conformity. This might be found in an established BUREAUCRACY for example government administration;
  3. task culture, characterized by an emphasis on problem-solving by expert teams. Groups are formed to deal with particular problems. Once the task is completed the group may be disbanded. Here the culture is one which attaches importance to expertise, though in fact expertise may be less developed in organizations of this sort than in role culture organizations, where job roles are more specialized. Task culture places a much greater emphasis on flexibility and creativity than does role culture;
  4. person-oriented culture, characterized by an emphasis on meeting the needs of individuals in the organization. This is often found in small, ‘alternative’ organizations. It may also characterize small organizations composed mainly of PROFESSIONALS, such as small consultancy companies, where it is deemed important that individuals be given some freedom to shape their jobs so that they can pursue particular professional or other ‘acceptable’ outside interests (for example, being a local councillor).

A concern of many managers in recent years has been that the prevailing culture of their organization is inappropriate, or even obstructive, to a desired change in objectives. For instance, a role culture, where jobs are specialized and well-defined, could obstruct creativity and hence prevent an organization from becoming more entrepreneurial. As a result much attention recently has been devoted to changing cultures. It is doubtful, however, whether managers can actually achieve dramatic cultural change in the short term. Culture is influenced by a complex of factors, such as the character and background of the workforce, many of which are to some extent independent of managerial action. See MANAGEMENT STYLE. MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC, EXCELLENCE CULTURE.

References in periodicals archive ?
Higher water temperature invariably means stress on the fish and development of parasites,'' the fish culturist explained.
The increase in fish consumption as a good source of protein and its cultural and religious acceptability are an indication that catfish culturists must live up to expectation of meeting the local demand.
So, if the traders give a good amount for the cocoon, we give good returns to the silk farmers but if they don't, then the culturists are forced to sell their products at a low rate," said R B Rai, Invigilator, Silk department, Gorakhpur.
Indeed, even in modern times we see an echo of this system in the otherwise Western-oriented economy of Israel-or the Holy Land to those of a metaphysical property culturist bent-where the majority of Jewish-owned rural and urban land is held on long-term leases from the Israel Lands Authority and the Jewish National Fund, representing the collective Jewish People.
He has worked as a field soil scientist and geomorphologist in Oregon and Utah, as an assistant nursery manager and nursery culturist at the J.
As described in Holliday, Hyde, & Kullman (2004), a small-culture approach moves away from the culturist focus on pseudo-homogenous national groups often described in stereotypical terms; moreover, it allows us to question the often tacit and unarticulated ideological issues at stake in people's meaning-makings processes.
Pop management theory in its 'high commitment workplace' guise still pursues this inclusive culturist ideal; the other side of harassment and sacking of union sympathisers is casual Fridays.
When the language of individual freedom is framed in communitarian or culturist discourse, it becomes much more difficult to move to the conclusions of Dworkin and make the unqualified statement that the definition of a liberal community entails a distinct form of toleration of dissent and respect for the individual, in which certain basic freedoms such as the right to trial and other essential personal liberties are more important than the collective interest.
The adoption of the euro is a good counter-example against the culturist interpretation according to which the French elite are nationalist and backward-looking.
My grandfather, a physical culturist who devoted his life to the physical and mental well-being of mankind, expressed his ideas through publication of Macfadden's Encyclopedia of Physical Culture, Keeping Fit, numerous books, and various periodicals.