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The norms and shared attitudes that pervade an ORGANIZATION. It may be expressed in symbols, rituals and the language used by organization members. It thus constitutes the distinctive characteristics of an organization. In recent years managerial interest in organizational culture has grown enormously It is believed that the culture will influence how individuals behave at work and hence will affect both individual and organizational performances.

A number of types of culture have been identified in this respect:

  1. power culture, characterized by an emphasis on personal charisma, risk-taking and a low level of respect for procedures. This might be found in a small entrepreneurial organization, where power tends to be concentrated in the entrepreneur;
  2. rôle culture, characterized by well-defined procedures and job roles, and an emphasis on conformity. This might be found in an established BUREAUCRACY for example government administration;
  3. task culture, characterized by an emphasis on problem-solving by expert teams. Groups are formed to deal with particular problems. Once the task is completed the group may be disbanded. Here the culture is one which attaches importance to expertise, though in fact expertise may be less developed in organizations of this sort than in role culture organizations, where job roles are more specialized. Task culture places a much greater emphasis on flexibility and creativity than does role culture;
  4. person-oriented culture, characterized by an emphasis on meeting the needs of individuals in the organization. This is often found in small, ‘alternative’ organizations. It may also characterize small organizations composed mainly of PROFESSIONALS, such as small consultancy companies, where it is deemed important that individuals be given some freedom to shape their jobs so that they can pursue particular professional or other ‘acceptable’ outside interests (for example, being a local councillor).

A concern of many managers in recent years has been that the prevailing culture of their organization is inappropriate, or even obstructive, to a desired change in objectives. For instance, a role culture, where jobs are specialized and well-defined, could obstruct creativity and hence prevent an organization from becoming more entrepreneurial. As a result much attention recently has been devoted to changing cultures. It is doubtful, however, whether managers can actually achieve dramatic cultural change in the short term. Culture is influenced by a complex of factors, such as the character and background of the workforce, many of which are to some extent independent of managerial action. See MANAGEMENT STYLE. MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC, EXCELLENCE CULTURE.

References in periodicals archive ?
Cultural heritage includes tangible culture (such as buildings, monuments, landscapes, books, works of art, and artifacts), intangible culture (such as folklore, traditions, language, and knowledge), and natural heritage (including culturally significant landscapes, and biodiversity).
The city is home to extensive commerce and some of the most historically and culturally significant landmarks in the country.
But here we're talking about someone who is one of the most culturally significant American fiction writers of the past 100 years.
They also argued that the project violated their constitutional rights, threatening an area which is a culturally significant waterway for traditional practices.
It is as culturally significant as the Royal Opera House or the National Theatre.
The main objective of the DMO will be to promote the region that is considered to be scenically beautiful and culturally significant.
Los Angeles-based attorneys Lindemann and Kadue offer this second edition to inform attorneys and employers, and general readers concerned with or fascinated by this culturally significant area.
As for the future risk of macro attacks, Woo said forces may be waiting for the opportunity to gain access to a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) arsenal; for a pass at a significant geographical region; or to attack on a culturally significant date.
The cemetery, recently restored by the Libyan government, is one of the newest additions to the Secretary of State's Register of Culturally Significant Property.
What is more culturally significant, and rather sad, is the drop off in the ability of the younger generation to identify the wonderful range of fragrances in the garden.
ANCSA is the only means by which title to these culturally significant, aboriginal properties can be returned to Native ownership, Sealaska officials said.
It is fantastic that we have been able to assist such a culturally significant establishment and we are now looking to help other venues that may also be affected by such an issue.

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