culture

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culture

The norms and shared attitudes that pervade an ORGANIZATION. It may be expressed in symbols, rituals and the language used by organization members. It thus constitutes the distinctive characteristics of an organization. In recent years managerial interest in organizational culture has grown enormously It is believed that the culture will influence how individuals behave at work and hence will affect both individual and organizational performances.

A number of types of culture have been identified in this respect:

  1. power culture, characterized by an emphasis on personal charisma, risk-taking and a low level of respect for procedures. This might be found in a small entrepreneurial organization, where power tends to be concentrated in the entrepreneur;
  2. rôle culture, characterized by well-defined procedures and job roles, and an emphasis on conformity. This might be found in an established BUREAUCRACY for example government administration;
  3. task culture, characterized by an emphasis on problem-solving by expert teams. Groups are formed to deal with particular problems. Once the task is completed the group may be disbanded. Here the culture is one which attaches importance to expertise, though in fact expertise may be less developed in organizations of this sort than in role culture organizations, where job roles are more specialized. Task culture places a much greater emphasis on flexibility and creativity than does role culture;
  4. person-oriented culture, characterized by an emphasis on meeting the needs of individuals in the organization. This is often found in small, ‘alternative’ organizations. It may also characterize small organizations composed mainly of PROFESSIONALS, such as small consultancy companies, where it is deemed important that individuals be given some freedom to shape their jobs so that they can pursue particular professional or other ‘acceptable’ outside interests (for example, being a local councillor).

A concern of many managers in recent years has been that the prevailing culture of their organization is inappropriate, or even obstructive, to a desired change in objectives. For instance, a role culture, where jobs are specialized and well-defined, could obstruct creativity and hence prevent an organization from becoming more entrepreneurial. As a result much attention recently has been devoted to changing cultures. It is doubtful, however, whether managers can actually achieve dramatic cultural change in the short term. Culture is influenced by a complex of factors, such as the character and background of the workforce, many of which are to some extent independent of managerial action. See MANAGEMENT STYLE. MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC, EXCELLENCE CULTURE.

References in periodicals archive ?
"Arguably one of the most culturally significant and architecturally relevant neighborhoods in Brooklyn, Bed-Stuy features ornate and timeless buildings, prime transportation options, as well as authentic food and retail choices."
The Mayor said we look to develop new and innovative public private partnerships that can allow for the continued growth of our cultural heritage and restoration of culturally significant projects.
Saleh Said and Brian Thomson, directors of Pennyroyal Gibraltar, added: "We are delighted to partner with Marriott International to debut The Ritz-Carlton in such a culturally significant destination and are confident that the brand's allure, coupled with Marriott International's strong base of loyal guests, will entice the affluent travelers to visit this enchanting destination, making it one of the most coveted resorts in the region."
Raw, accessible and culturally significant, Alice's daughter will entrance those interested in recent Aboriginal history, and Rhonda Collard-Spratt's distinctive voice will strike a chord with Aboriginal readers.
And this holidayperhaps the most culturally significant to American Jewsgoes a step further.
"With more than 700 years of history, I could not think of a more proud and fitting location for the sculpture, and urge people to come and see this culturally significant reminder of the cost of one of humanity's greatest conflicts."
"Notorious" fails to sell the show within the show as culturally significant or particularly well-regarded.
Protests have been ramping up against the pipeline, which the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe alleges could contaminate its water supply and disrupt culturally significant sites, since early August.
Cumulative Effects of Environmental Change on Culturally Significant Ecosystems in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region.
"We preserve properties we feel are architecturally interesting and culturally significant," adds Sewell.
The largest and most culturally significant city in northern Thailand, Chiang Mai will be the fourth city in the Asian country to be served by Qatar Airways, which currently flies to Bangkok and Phuket, and will commence flights to Krabi on December 6.
Acquired by the CPM in 2015 and comprised of 167 original open-reel tape recordings from Brown County, Indiana, the Hedrick collection is one of the most historically and culturally significant assemblages of live hillbilly music and bluegrass recordings in existence.

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