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The norms and shared attitudes that pervade an ORGANIZATION. It may be expressed in symbols, rituals and the language used by organization members. It thus constitutes the distinctive characteristics of an organization. In recent years managerial interest in organizational culture has grown enormously It is believed that the culture will influence how individuals behave at work and hence will affect both individual and organizational performances.

A number of types of culture have been identified in this respect:

  1. power culture, characterized by an emphasis on personal charisma, risk-taking and a low level of respect for procedures. This might be found in a small entrepreneurial organization, where power tends to be concentrated in the entrepreneur;
  2. rôle culture, characterized by well-defined procedures and job roles, and an emphasis on conformity. This might be found in an established BUREAUCRACY for example government administration;
  3. task culture, characterized by an emphasis on problem-solving by expert teams. Groups are formed to deal with particular problems. Once the task is completed the group may be disbanded. Here the culture is one which attaches importance to expertise, though in fact expertise may be less developed in organizations of this sort than in role culture organizations, where job roles are more specialized. Task culture places a much greater emphasis on flexibility and creativity than does role culture;
  4. person-oriented culture, characterized by an emphasis on meeting the needs of individuals in the organization. This is often found in small, ‘alternative’ organizations. It may also characterize small organizations composed mainly of PROFESSIONALS, such as small consultancy companies, where it is deemed important that individuals be given some freedom to shape their jobs so that they can pursue particular professional or other ‘acceptable’ outside interests (for example, being a local councillor).

A concern of many managers in recent years has been that the prevailing culture of their organization is inappropriate, or even obstructive, to a desired change in objectives. For instance, a role culture, where jobs are specialized and well-defined, could obstruct creativity and hence prevent an organization from becoming more entrepreneurial. As a result much attention recently has been devoted to changing cultures. It is doubtful, however, whether managers can actually achieve dramatic cultural change in the short term. Culture is influenced by a complex of factors, such as the character and background of the workforce, many of which are to some extent independent of managerial action. See MANAGEMENT STYLE. MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC, EXCELLENCE CULTURE.

References in periodicals archive ?
Deputy Lord Mayor Chiang Lim had earlier this week said there was no way the council could legally reject the new proposal on the grounds that it was a site of "cultural significance".
Unfortunately, Easlea's attempts to capture Chic's cultural significance barely stretch beyond crowbarring news events of the time ("On 4th November 1979, the US Embassy in Tehran was taken over by militant Iranian students ...") into his narrative.
"In order to bring the religious and cultural significance of the Eid'l Fitr to the fore of national consciousness, it is necessary to declare Tuesday, 29 July 2014, as a regular holiday throughout the country," the proclamation said.
A lengthy introduction expounds on the history and prehistory, ecological niches, and cultural significance of the ancient forests.
The actress, who is to begin an Open University course, will learn about the cultural significance of the Rolling Stones.
In the book under review here, John Cunnally examines the development of numismatic books in the Renaissance and their intellectual and cultural significance. He does not attempt a systematic history of coin collecting and scholarship, a field to which he made an important contribution with his unpublished 1984 University of Pennsylvania dissertation, The Role of Greek and Roman Coins in the Art of the Italian Renaissance.
Much as Ku's language-based works pare words down to scarcely significant chunks of meaning, or even mere elemental sounds, this piece seems to enact the emergence of a myth at some kind of primal ground zero, divested of all its accumulated cultural significance. A moist blob of a creature with a fat neck appears first.
As ethnic enclaves melted into outlying suburbs, and ethnic groups merged through common intermarriage, defining ethnic foods diminished in their cultural significance. Foods of all origins became wholly American, with their ethnicity becoming as superficial a descriptor as the term "new and improved." Over time the Campbell Soup Company became the largest producer of "Mexican sauces," Chef Boyardee served an assortment of pastas, and Frito-Lay sold Pizza Hut-flavored Dorito chips.
"In order to bring the religious and cultural significance of the Eid'l Fitr to the fore of national consciousness, it is necessary to declare Friday, 9 August 2013, as a regular holiday throughout the country," Malacanang said through proclamation 629.
Caves in context; the cultural significance of caves and rockshelters in Europe.

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