culture

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culture

The norms and shared attitudes that pervade an ORGANIZATION. It may be expressed in symbols, rituals and the language used by organization members. It thus constitutes the distinctive characteristics of an organization. In recent years managerial interest in organizational culture has grown enormously It is believed that the culture will influence how individuals behave at work and hence will affect both individual and organizational performances.

A number of types of culture have been identified in this respect:

  1. power culture, characterized by an emphasis on personal charisma, risk-taking and a low level of respect for procedures. This might be found in a small entrepreneurial organization, where power tends to be concentrated in the entrepreneur;
  2. rôle culture, characterized by well-defined procedures and job roles, and an emphasis on conformity. This might be found in an established BUREAUCRACY for example government administration;
  3. task culture, characterized by an emphasis on problem-solving by expert teams. Groups are formed to deal with particular problems. Once the task is completed the group may be disbanded. Here the culture is one which attaches importance to expertise, though in fact expertise may be less developed in organizations of this sort than in role culture organizations, where job roles are more specialized. Task culture places a much greater emphasis on flexibility and creativity than does role culture;
  4. person-oriented culture, characterized by an emphasis on meeting the needs of individuals in the organization. This is often found in small, ‘alternative’ organizations. It may also characterize small organizations composed mainly of PROFESSIONALS, such as small consultancy companies, where it is deemed important that individuals be given some freedom to shape their jobs so that they can pursue particular professional or other ‘acceptable’ outside interests (for example, being a local councillor).

A concern of many managers in recent years has been that the prevailing culture of their organization is inappropriate, or even obstructive, to a desired change in objectives. For instance, a role culture, where jobs are specialized and well-defined, could obstruct creativity and hence prevent an organization from becoming more entrepreneurial. As a result much attention recently has been devoted to changing cultures. It is doubtful, however, whether managers can actually achieve dramatic cultural change in the short term. Culture is influenced by a complex of factors, such as the character and background of the workforce, many of which are to some extent independent of managerial action. See MANAGEMENT STYLE. MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC, EXCELLENCE CULTURE.

References in periodicals archive ?
A memorandum of understanding has been inked by the members of the executive management teams from the Chicago Department of Aviation (CDA) and Birmingham Airport, as per which both will work together to strengthen trade, tourism and cultural links.
Alba) s backing for strong commercial, social and cultural links between the Kingdom of Bahrain and Japan through sponsorship support of a commemorative book being released by the Bahrain Japan Business and Friendship Society (BJBFS).
Alba) emphasised its backing for strong commercial, social and cultural links between the Kingdom of Bahrain and Japan through sponsorship support of a commemorative book being released by the Bahrain Japan Business & Friendship Society (BJBFS).
Australia is a globally integrated economy and the country is deeply connected through geographic proximity, trade, investment, tourism and cultural links with the dynamic Asian region.
He availed the opportunity to reiterate Pakistan's commitment towards Shanghai Spirit of mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality, respect for cultural diversity and pursuit of common development goals and that Pakistan shares with SCO and its members deep-rooted historical and cultural links and strong economic and strategic complimentarily.
Irish connection Celebrating the cultural links are (left) Fergus Wood Stirling Council leader Scott Farmer, Baillie Alasdair Tollemache and Mick Crehan
He said Pakistan shared with SCO and its members, deep-rooted historical and cultural links and strong economic and strategic complementarity.
ISLAMABAD -- President Mamnoon Hussain Tuesday said Spain was an important European country with which Pakistan was keen to enhance its relations in different fields and stressed for further increase in bilateral trade and cultural links between the two countries.
TONY Blair has said he wanted a British football league to be set up to maintain cultural links across the UK following devolution.
A UNIVERSITY will host a special one-day conference exploring the historical and cultural links between Ireland and Wales, including how a disused whisky distillery in Merionethshire had far-reaching consequences for the Irish independence movement.
He also appreciated the long standing friendly relationship between the two countries rooted in the longstanding trade and cultural links.
Managing director David Clarke said: "China is becoming hugely important to the West Midlands and presents us with a massive opportunity, both in terms of securing new business but also building cultural links.

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