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The norms and shared attitudes that pervade an ORGANIZATION. It may be expressed in symbols, rituals and the language used by organization members. It thus constitutes the distinctive characteristics of an organization. In recent years managerial interest in organizational culture has grown enormously It is believed that the culture will influence how individuals behave at work and hence will affect both individual and organizational performances.

A number of types of culture have been identified in this respect:

  1. power culture, characterized by an emphasis on personal charisma, risk-taking and a low level of respect for procedures. This might be found in a small entrepreneurial organization, where power tends to be concentrated in the entrepreneur;
  2. rôle culture, characterized by well-defined procedures and job roles, and an emphasis on conformity. This might be found in an established BUREAUCRACY for example government administration;
  3. task culture, characterized by an emphasis on problem-solving by expert teams. Groups are formed to deal with particular problems. Once the task is completed the group may be disbanded. Here the culture is one which attaches importance to expertise, though in fact expertise may be less developed in organizations of this sort than in role culture organizations, where job roles are more specialized. Task culture places a much greater emphasis on flexibility and creativity than does role culture;
  4. person-oriented culture, characterized by an emphasis on meeting the needs of individuals in the organization. This is often found in small, ‘alternative’ organizations. It may also characterize small organizations composed mainly of PROFESSIONALS, such as small consultancy companies, where it is deemed important that individuals be given some freedom to shape their jobs so that they can pursue particular professional or other ‘acceptable’ outside interests (for example, being a local councillor).

A concern of many managers in recent years has been that the prevailing culture of their organization is inappropriate, or even obstructive, to a desired change in objectives. For instance, a role culture, where jobs are specialized and well-defined, could obstruct creativity and hence prevent an organization from becoming more entrepreneurial. As a result much attention recently has been devoted to changing cultures. It is doubtful, however, whether managers can actually achieve dramatic cultural change in the short term. Culture is influenced by a complex of factors, such as the character and background of the workforce, many of which are to some extent independent of managerial action. See MANAGEMENT STYLE. MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC, EXCELLENCE CULTURE.

References in periodicals archive ?
In so doing, this approach contributes to expanding existing scholarship on the globalization of television formats that previously depended either on the cultural imperialism thesis, with a focus on the unilateral expansion of American formats into the globe, or the hybrid thesis, with a focus on the adaption and assimilation between global and local cultural codes throughout the formats (Oren & Shahaf, 2012).
Defining the Bombay Cine-Hero--A Century of Stable Cultural Codes
The gnomic' code is one of the cultural codes and refers to those cultural codes that are tied to clichACopyrights proverbs or popular sayings of various sorts" (Felluga).
Yet it most resembles parable, showing how socially constructed cultural codes can transform society into a Kafkaesque penal colony.
The paper by Pierre Walter investigates how cultural codes in environmental adult education can be used to 'frame' collective identity, develop counter-hegemonic ideologies, and catalyse 'educative-activism' within social movements.
The fourth chapter engages "Medieval Mythologies" by reconstructing the cultural codes not found within church documents.
Such a connection between the cultural codes and the legal codes has been theoretically established by a group of scholars who examined law from a sociological perspective (see, for example, Andenaes, 1977; Berman, 1977; Friedman, 1977; Fuller, 1977; Weyrauch, 1977; Zimring & Hawkins, 1977).
Yamamoto's signature silhouettes, blacks, incredible sensitivity to materials, intellectualism, and mastery of cultural codes were all here, and were plenty to keep you bouncing through the room--no other gimmicks were needed.
Poland's exhibit explored the theme of "Space: Between people, memory, history, emotions, cultural codes.
In this sense, even when these cultural codes are represented in a cross-cultural context and educational function, cultural translation is achieved through intermediality.
For example, in chapter 7 where Thiery discusses the complexity of cultural codes faced by priests, the request in numerous wills for a chantry priest to be of good character and to possess a good reputation and to be honest would have only bolstered the argument of a culture-wide movement toward standards of civility.
From the exhibited corpse of a murdered pornography artist to the tamed and agonised picture of an anonymous child that decorates the walls of the Anatolian coffee houses, Gurbilek presents a gallery of portraits that reveal the cultural codes of a society that has experienced--and is still experiencing--the impact of a series of upheavals and radical transformations.

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