culture

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culture

The norms and shared attitudes that pervade an ORGANIZATION. It may be expressed in symbols, rituals and the language used by organization members. It thus constitutes the distinctive characteristics of an organization. In recent years managerial interest in organizational culture has grown enormously It is believed that the culture will influence how individuals behave at work and hence will affect both individual and organizational performances.

A number of types of culture have been identified in this respect:

  1. power culture, characterized by an emphasis on personal charisma, risk-taking and a low level of respect for procedures. This might be found in a small entrepreneurial organization, where power tends to be concentrated in the entrepreneur;
  2. rôle culture, characterized by well-defined procedures and job roles, and an emphasis on conformity. This might be found in an established BUREAUCRACY for example government administration;
  3. task culture, characterized by an emphasis on problem-solving by expert teams. Groups are formed to deal with particular problems. Once the task is completed the group may be disbanded. Here the culture is one which attaches importance to expertise, though in fact expertise may be less developed in organizations of this sort than in role culture organizations, where job roles are more specialized. Task culture places a much greater emphasis on flexibility and creativity than does role culture;
  4. person-oriented culture, characterized by an emphasis on meeting the needs of individuals in the organization. This is often found in small, ‘alternative’ organizations. It may also characterize small organizations composed mainly of PROFESSIONALS, such as small consultancy companies, where it is deemed important that individuals be given some freedom to shape their jobs so that they can pursue particular professional or other ‘acceptable’ outside interests (for example, being a local councillor).

A concern of many managers in recent years has been that the prevailing culture of their organization is inappropriate, or even obstructive, to a desired change in objectives. For instance, a role culture, where jobs are specialized and well-defined, could obstruct creativity and hence prevent an organization from becoming more entrepreneurial. As a result much attention recently has been devoted to changing cultures. It is doubtful, however, whether managers can actually achieve dramatic cultural change in the short term. Culture is influenced by a complex of factors, such as the character and background of the workforce, many of which are to some extent independent of managerial action. See MANAGEMENT STYLE. MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC, EXCELLENCE CULTURE.

References in periodicals archive ?
Indeed, just as Cold War Security Studies was oblivious to its own politics, those who invoke 'sacred' cultural codes remain silent about their own politics.
(19.) Volkov, "Antisemitism as a Cultural Code," 38-39.
Following the cast and their journey, audiences are given the chance to become acquainted with local places, witnessing daily activities, learning cultural codes, and encountering local people.
Described as a heinous case involving the honour killings of four of the Shafia female family members, it symbolized how an immigrant family chose to punish its own for violating cultural codes. According to media accounts, it was a classic tale of culture clash with the key words being immigrant origins and tribal, patriarchal cultures.
She states that rooted in transgression and subversion, the trickster can facilitate a critical exploration of the social and cultural codes represented in this novel.
contains greetings in eight languages and advice on cultural codes of different nationalities.
A six-page booklet entitled 'Do you speak Touriste?' contains greetings in eight languages, including German, Chinese and Portuguese, and advice on the spending habits and cultural codes of different nationalities.
In short, the industry is as good as the male heroes it creates to respond to shifting cultural codes and generational demands over time.
In order to perpetuate the power of the party, a new generation subservient to values, cultural codes and references of the AK Party would be very instrumental.The attitude and policy of the ruling party presumes a hierarchy among different lifestyles.
Yet Nelk uses Lotman's lifelong investigation of cultural codes to recode documentary cinema.
In the same way, the new generation of British Asians were able to switch between Asian and English cultures, between different religious and cultural codes, with fluidity.
In the right hands, the graphic novel, as a form, has a propensity for juxtaposing a multiplicity of texts and images, and Weaver makes good use of this intertextuality to show the many cultural codes and hypocrisies in Lila's world.

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