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The norms and shared attitudes that pervade an ORGANIZATION. It may be expressed in symbols, rituals and the language used by organization members. It thus constitutes the distinctive characteristics of an organization. In recent years managerial interest in organizational culture has grown enormously It is believed that the culture will influence how individuals behave at work and hence will affect both individual and organizational performances.

A number of types of culture have been identified in this respect:

  1. power culture, characterized by an emphasis on personal charisma, risk-taking and a low level of respect for procedures. This might be found in a small entrepreneurial organization, where power tends to be concentrated in the entrepreneur;
  2. rôle culture, characterized by well-defined procedures and job roles, and an emphasis on conformity. This might be found in an established BUREAUCRACY for example government administration;
  3. task culture, characterized by an emphasis on problem-solving by expert teams. Groups are formed to deal with particular problems. Once the task is completed the group may be disbanded. Here the culture is one which attaches importance to expertise, though in fact expertise may be less developed in organizations of this sort than in role culture organizations, where job roles are more specialized. Task culture places a much greater emphasis on flexibility and creativity than does role culture;
  4. person-oriented culture, characterized by an emphasis on meeting the needs of individuals in the organization. This is often found in small, ‘alternative’ organizations. It may also characterize small organizations composed mainly of PROFESSIONALS, such as small consultancy companies, where it is deemed important that individuals be given some freedom to shape their jobs so that they can pursue particular professional or other ‘acceptable’ outside interests (for example, being a local councillor).

A concern of many managers in recent years has been that the prevailing culture of their organization is inappropriate, or even obstructive, to a desired change in objectives. For instance, a role culture, where jobs are specialized and well-defined, could obstruct creativity and hence prevent an organization from becoming more entrepreneurial. As a result much attention recently has been devoted to changing cultures. It is doubtful, however, whether managers can actually achieve dramatic cultural change in the short term. Culture is influenced by a complex of factors, such as the character and background of the workforce, many of which are to some extent independent of managerial action. See MANAGEMENT STYLE. MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC, EXCELLENCE CULTURE.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson
References in periodicals archive ?
We realize that we are different from other cultures when we encounter with the other ones [Triandis, 1994].
"Regional development leaders need to recognize that ideas, talent, capital and a cultur e of openness and collaboration are all vital to regional startup communities, which are best thought of as innovation ecosystems involving complex interaction among entrepreneurs, investors, suppliers, universities, large existing businesses and a host of supporting actors and organizations," he advises.
Ministry of Finance approved allocating EGP 3.9bn as urgent allocations in August and September for Ministries of Health ,Transport, Cultur and Supply.
This adapted manual emphasizes on three major areas to be considered while delivering culturally sensitive therapy, i.e., assessment and engagement, awareness of cultur al factors and adjustments in therapy techniques.
This shows that spiritual leadership through involving members in persuasion of a clear and compelling vision builds a cultur eof altruistic love which produces a sense of belongingness in employees and creates a sense of ownership in them for their organization.
Councillor Nigel Howells said: "Having been responsible leisure and culture for eight years, amuch as I resisted in meights years of going out tthe market, sadly we arwhere we are and this ithe only way we can seeto keep leisure and cultur high on the agenda in Cardiff."
as it sounds, there today who believe drinking their own urine can boost their HEALTH, and it has been used across many cultur" over the centuries as a remedy for countless problems - including acne.
But Davis also shows u s that, although many in Labour lack affinity with the politics and cultur e of the country, some at least recognise this failing; it is almost touching to read of them discovering (and perhaps envying) people for whom politics is an existential commitment of intense passion and even beauty.
The Foundation acts as a French cultural center, "which aims at spreading the French language and cultur in Bethlehem and the surrounding area and plays a key role as a focal point for numerous Franco-Palestinian cooperation projects implemented in this area, said the release.