2) The research was designed as a follow-up study with four assessments, at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, but the statistical analyses were done using a cross-sectional approach
at each measurement without taking into account the multilevel nature of the repeated (or longitudinal) measures of each patient and without the baseline adjustments of the outcome scores.
The murders of personalities such as Qandeel Baloch and Mashal Khan, on allegations of vulgarity and blasphemy respectively online, are glaring testaments of the link between online and offline violence and discrimination, and the need for a cross-sectional approach
to ICT policy.
These include need for multi-sectoral coordination between federal and provincial levels through a joint Public Health Commission; development of mutually agreed and funded roadmap to develop relevant action plans for key priorities outlined by the mission; establishment of tiered surveillance and laboratory systems with a One Health approach to include human and animal health sector; development of uniform regulatory standards in all areas of food security and comprehensive national cross-sectional approach
towards Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR).
Offering a cross-sectional approach
that includes SEO, desktop and mobile-friendly site creation, directory listings, and more, Prospect Genius's Web advertising campaign works to make sure that Murphy's Appliance Heating & Cooling can be found easily and quickly by Englewood-area residents who are looking for professional appliance repair and HVAC services.
This research shows that the response in Ireland was similar to other countries' in that a cross-sectional approach
by a number of groups in society was attempted, but in the end, very little could be done except to provide the basics of nursing care.
A cross-sectional approach
was used to compare estimated IHD mortality risks among neighborhoods based on "walkability" scores.
The study uses a Ricardian cross-sectional approach
to measure the relationship between the net revenue from growing crops and climate.
Compared with a cross-sectional approach
, however, a panel approach arguably involves less restrictive assumptions, in that only if changes in unobserved characteristics impacting on safety are correlated with changes in working time does bias from unobserved characteristics arise.
Although his result showing a parallelism between local and national labor markets may relieve the conscience of those focusing on the national level, such a cross-sectional approach
allows exploration of a number of different causal variables than in other labor market studies.
To examine the importance of using the cohort approach instead of the cross-sectional approach
, I estimated cross-sectional models.
Previous studies to identify at-risk populations most frequently used a cross-sectional approach
involving comparisons of characteristics of smokers and nonsmokers assessed at a single moment.|10~ As noted by Chassin et al|11~ and Collins et al,|12~ such cross-sectional analyses do not allow inferences regarding causes of smoking onset: characteristics that differentiate between smokers and nonsmokers could be either the cause or the result of smoking or could be related to some unspecified third factor.