gold standard

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Gold standard

An international monetary system in which currencies are defined in terms of their gold content, and payment imbalances between countries are settled in gold. It was in effect from about 1870 to 1914.

Gold Standard

A system whereby a currency is linked to the value of gold. That is, one would be able to exchange one unit of the currency for so many ounces of gold on demand. The gold standard makes monetary policy independent from policymaker decisions. Many currencies have been linked to gold over the years, most recently under the Bretton Woods System. The gold standard reduces the likelihood of inflation, but tends to cause higher interest rates and renders a country less able to pursue full employment. The gold standard contrasts with fiat money. See also: Cross of Gold, Silver Standard.

gold standard

A monetary system under which a country's money is defined in terms of gold and convertible into a fixed quantity of gold. A gold standard effectively takes monetary policy out of the hands of government policymakers. While use of the gold standard reduces the likelihood of inflation, the accompanying inability to pursue other economic goals, such as full employment or reduced interest rates, has resulted in the gold standard's fall from favor.

Gold standard.

The gold standard is a monetary system that measures the relative value of a currency against a specific amount of gold.

It was developed in England in the early 18th century when the scientist Sir Isaac Newton was Master of the English Mint. By the late 19th century, the gold standard was used throughout the world.

The United States was on the gold standard until 1971, when it stopped redeeming its paper currency for gold.

gold standard

an INTERNATIONAL MONETARY SYSTEM in which GOLD forms the basis of countries’ domestic MONEY SUPPLY and is used to finance INTERNATIONAL TRADE and BALANCE OF PAYMENTS deficits.

Under the gold standard, EXCHANGE RATES were rigidly fixed in terms of gold. (The gold standard was widely adopted in the 19th century and operated down to the early 1930s.) In theory, the gold standard provided an automatic ADJUSTMENT MECHANISM for eliminating payments imbalances between countries: deficits were financed by outward gold transfers that reduced the domestic MONEY SUPPLY. This in turn deflated (see DEFLATION) the domestic price level, making IMPORTS relatively more expensive and EXPORTS relatively cheaper, thereby reducing the volume of imports and increasing the volume of exports. Surpluses were financed by inward gold transfers, which increased the domestic money supply. This in turn inflated (see INFLATION) the domestic price level, making imports relatively cheaper and exports relatively more expensive, resulting in a fall in the volume of exports and an increase in the volume of imports. In this way, both deficits and surpluses were removed and BALANCE OF PAYMENTS EQUILIBRIUM restored. In practice, however, countries found that a combination of rigidly fixed exchange rates and the complete subordination of domestic economic policy to the external situation was too onerous and opted for more flexible arrangements. See FIXED EXCHANGE RATE SYSTEM, INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND.

References in periodicals archive ?
Alternatively, as we propose in this paper and show below by way of hypothetical example, the cutoff point that establishes the Criterion Standard Test is the one that corresponds to the lowest P-Value of the Pearson's chi-squared test ([chi square]).
To discover the optimum cutoff point (or, the cutoff point that would give rise to the Criterion Standard Test), we proceeded as follows: based on the distribution of SUV scores, we constructed all possible 2-variable contingency tables per SUV value--as the one below for SUV = 10--and, using the [chi square] test, we tested whether or not the state of nature variable and the test results variable are independent.
Similarly, male Kinesiology students performed significantly lower in terms of cardiorespiratory endurance than the criterion standard, which was reflected by longer run times and, consequently, lower estimated VO, max.
Another interesting finding from the analyses howed that male Kinesiology students display significantly higher muscular endurance when compared to the criterion standard.
Sensitivity of data from structured visit note (SVN) only versus criterion standard of whole medical record for completing/not completing recommended care process.
Our selection criteria are consistent with recognized standards for reviewing diagnostic tests, specifically in eliminating spectrum bias and requiring a criterion standard.
For each included study, we extracted information about the screening instrument, the criterion standard, sensitivity and specificity, average age of participants, their dementia status, and the study setting.
Methods to avoid verification bias [7] (usually by application of criterion standard to all subjects) or to deal with its consequences.
For studies of prognostic tests, indicate whether the criterion standard or the evaluated tests influenced therapy (treatment paradox [8]).
Methods for blinding of those performing (a) evaluated test(s) and (b) criterion standard test(s) to avoid reviewer bias.
Although cervical histology is the criterion standard for diagnosis, the interobserver agreement by pathologists for cervical histologic tissue is only a modest 65%.
The variations in test performances reported in the literature are due to differences in the criterion standard, test processing methods, and prevalence of C trachomatis in the population.