# matrix

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Fig. 58 Matrix. The matrix structure.

## matrix

an ORGANIZATION structure in which individuals report to managers in more than one DEPARTMENT or function. The simple CHAIN OF COMMAND found in the classic BUREAUCRACY is replaced by (potentially) a multiplicity of reporting relationships. This type of structure may characterize part of the organization – for project team management for instance, where a project manager assumes authority over team members drawn from a number of departments – or it may extend to the entire organization. See Fig. 58.

There is no standard form of matrix. Managers may have equal formal authority over subordinates or alternatively one of these may have primary authority with the others, assuming authority on particular issues, as in the dotted-line relationship (see ORGANIZATION CHART). The benefits of matrix organization are said to be that it facilitates interdepartmental coordination during innovation, and, by weakening departmental boundaries, encourages greater flexibility and creativity. However, many organizations that have assumed this form have found that the absence of clarity in lines of authority and responsibility can lead to inertia and conflict. See FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE, PRODUCT-BASED STRUCTURE, CRITICAL FUNCTION STRUCTURE, CONCURRENT ENGINEERING.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson
References in periodicals archive ?
Besides the circuit model of the battery, the estimation accuracy is strongly influenced by the initial values of the state vector ([x.sup.0.sub.0]) and error covariance matrix ([P.sup.0.sub.0]).
With N snapshots of array received data [{x(t)}.sup.N.sub.t=1], one can compute the M x M array output covariance matrix.
The term ([mathematical expression not reproducible], is the ith column or row vector of the weighted square root of the scaled covariance matrix ([n.sub.a] + [lambda]) [P.sup.a.sub.k].
For systems (2) and (5) under the precondition of Lemma 1, the estimation error covariance matrix [[PHI].sub.t-i-j] (t - d - i + 1, t - d + 1) of the state is calculated by
The measurement noise covariance matrix also has a diagonal structure giving the current measurement and A/D convertor error ([r.sub.ii] is the variance of [v.sub.k]) given as [R.sub.k] = diag [[r.sub.11] [r.sub.22] [r.sub.33]].
and the covariance matrix of the filtering error is computed recursively by the following equation:
Then, a composite covariance matrix as a weighted total of covariance matrices, including subjects resulting in a composite CSP, is determined by CSP for subject-to-subject transfer (CSP SJ-to-SJ).
In order to reconstruct a pseudo quad-polarized covariance matrix for the CP DCP mode, <[[absolute value of ([S.sub.hv])].sup.2]> needs to be iteratively solved.
Regarding the best structure of the covariance matrix for random effects (G), lower values of -2LMV, AIC, BIC, and residuals were observed for the UN matrix in random quadratic regression models with intercepts (model 3), followed by the cubic model without intercept (model 6) (Table 1).
In mathematical terms, the principal components of the distribution of faces or the eigenvectors of the covariance matrix of the set of face images, is sought by treating an image as a vector in a very high dimensional face space.
The PCA loading matrix P can be obtained by eigenvalue decomposition on the covariance matrix [[SIGMA].sub.X].

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