(6) While historical work on conflict economies and the early work on the political economy of conflict tended to be more comprehensive, the field began focusing on natural resources with the issue of conflict diamonds
. (7) Henceforth, the literature grew in diversity and quality and the field became increasingly dominated by two research agendas.
The conflict diamond
problem is by no means confined to West Africa.
Warns Richman: "There is a real danger that this process that is intended to stop conflict diamonds
can instead allow a monopolist like De Beers to strengthen its control over the global supply.
The issue facing the Kimberley Process is that blood diamonds - or conflict diamonds
, to use the diamond trade's preferred term - first come onto the market as irregular rough diamonds.
(82) De Morais explains the practical effect of the loophole in the KPCS definition of "conflict diamond
" with the following powerful statement: "Diamonds being mined today in Lundas are no less bloody than those that funded past wars.
The recent attention on it conflict minerals is rooted in the actions taken around a well-known cousin, conflict diamonds
. In June 1998, the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) passed Resolution 1173 that identified, among other things, the use of diamonds (also called "blood diamonds") to fund armed conflicts between warring factions in Africa.
This is where the civil society campaign against conflict diamonds
In addition, the Kimberley Process, a U.N.-mandated program of collaboration between industry and government aims to create a certification system for rough diamonds to exclude "conflict diamonds
" from the legitimate diamond trade.
The Kimberley Process, or KP, was formed in 2003 when African diamond producers met in Kimberley, South Africa, to discuss ways to stop the trade in conflict diamonds
. The process is open to countries willing to adopt legislation and institutions to certify that rough diamonds have not been associated with conflict and to prevent diamonds involved in conflict from entering legitimate trade.
Thus, the situation in Zimbabwe brought the conflict diamond
dilemma to a head: Zimbabwe is in compliance with the KPCS (20) and is yet responsible for gross human rights violations perpetrated for the sake of diamonds.
He noted his company's ongoing struggle to keep the image of its diamonds "untarnished" and "ethical" amid conflict diamond
Amnesty International calls them "conflict diamonds
" -- they are sold to fund armed conflict and civil war.