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Fig. 23 Computer. The main items of hardware.


an electronic/electromechanical device which accepts alphabetical and numerical data in a predefined form, stores and processes this data according to the instructions contained in a COMPUTER PROGRAM, and presents the analysed data in an organized form. Fig. 23 shows the main items of computer HARDWARE, with input devices like KEYBOARDS, and magnetic tape readers; the CPU (central processing unit) which manipulates data; DISK DRIVES which provide additional data storage capacity; and output devices like PRINTERS and VISUAL DISPLAY UNITS. The figure shows how a number of computers may be linked in a LOCAL AREA NETWORK, in this case to process customer orders, maintain the sales LEDGER and issue INVOICES.

Big ‘mainframe’ computers are used to handle large databases. For example, the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency in Swansea holds over 60 million records on its mainframe computer. Increasingly, however, with the development of faster, more powerful and more cost-effective microprocessors the mainframe computer has been replaced by the desktop ‘personal computer’ (PC) in routine office data-processing operations (DOWNSIZING), with PCs being linked together in LOCAL AREA NETWORKS, enabling them to share data. A further development has been the introduction of small portable computers typified by the ‘notebook’ personal computer which can be carried in a briefcase.

Computers have dramatically improved the productivity of DATA PROCESSING in business, facilitating the keeping of ACCOUNTING ledger records like sales ledger, purchases ledger and payroll and personal records by small numbers of clerical staff. In addition, software packages like SPREADSHEETS and WORD PROCESSORS have improved the presentation and analysis of management information, helping to improve decision-making. See FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM, PRODUCTION LINE, ELECTRONIC MAIL SYSTEM, COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN, COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING, INFORMATION MANAGEMENT, BULLETIN BOARD, MODEM, INTERNET.


an electronic/electromechanical device that accepts alphabetical and numerical data in a predetermined form, stores and processes this data according to instructions contained in a computer program, and presents the analysed data. Computers have dramatically improved the productivity of data processing in commerce and business; for example, computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing systems have improved the speed and cost with which new components or products can be assigned and subsequently scheduled for production;

computer-aided distribution and stock control systems such as ELECTRONIC POINT OF SALE (EPOS) have helped to minimize stockholdings and have improved customer services; computers have rapidly taken over the manual tasks of keeping accounting records such as company sales and payroll. Computers have also played a prominent role in speeding up the response of commodity and financial markets to changing demand and supply conditions by processing and reporting transactions quickly.

In recent years computers have underpinned the rapid expansion of E-COMMERCE using the INTERNET. See STOCK EXCHANGE, AUTOMATION, MASS PRODUCTION.

References in periodicals archive ?
Esta distincion es importante a la hora de computar equilibrios "contrafactuales", pues en este modelo dinamico los anuncios de politica per se tienen un efecto sobre el default y el efecto de cualquier cambio depende no solo de su nivel, sino tambien de su evolucion esperada.
En el actual procedimiento ordinario de eleccion de Presidente de la Republica se ha de computar como un voto valido la boleta marcada a favor de un candidato independiente o solo de un partido politico o de los tres partidos coaligados en cada uno de los tres casos de coalicion o cuando se vote tres veces a favor del mismo candidato de coalicion.
according to Terry Sekiya, Marketing and Sales Manager, Computar Optics Group.
Para computar el carbono asociado a la biomasa arborea excluyendo el tronco se ha multiplicado por un factor de expansion de 1,5 (Penman et al., 2003).
Both the vari-focal auto iris lenses currently in use and those Carroll is upgrading to are manufactured by Computar of Commack, New York The new lenses will be double the strength of the current lenses and will offer a clearer picture.
CBC AMERICAS Corp., a premier manufacturer of HD optics and intelligent video surveillance systems and the parent company of the Computar Optics brand is pleased to announce the addition of Mr.
se dejo de dar dicha informacion, pues los funcionarios de los comites distritales se dedicaron de lleno a analizar y computar las casillas que les correspondian, a fin de llegar al resultado oficial." Esto es, se suspendio la informacion oficial pero no para analizar y computar, pues seria una ingenuidad creerlo asi, sino para manipular las cifras y ponerlas a tono con el fraude, o sea, con el que queria presentarse como resultado oficial.
De todos modos, el dictamen inapelable, inatacable, de la maxima autoridad electoral en la materia, el Tribunal Electoral ya declaro presidente electo a Felipe Calderon Hinojosa, luego de examinar impugnaciones (juridicamente desechables) y computar las votaciones emitidas.
--El dice que se debe computar todo porque asi gana.
Y no solo porque se trate de volver a computar alrededor de unos 4 millones de votos, sino porque las casillas seleccionadas por el Tribunal Electoral forman parte --como no podia ser de otra manera-- de las 21 mil 457 casillas de los 173 distritos impugnados por la coalicion Por el Bien de Todos, de las cuales forman algo asi como el 54 por ciento, aunque solo sean el 9 por ciento de las 130 mil y pico que fueron el gran total en la eleccion del 2 de julio.

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