5] European Committee for Standardization (Cen) EN 12697-26, Bituminous mixtures--Test method for hot mix asphalt--Part 26: Complex modulus
, Brussels, Belgium 2003.
4 represents the energy dissipation obtained during one cycle of complex modulus
Asphalt rubber blends with relatively lower complex modulus
(G*) and higher phase angles are more ductile and flexible, resulting in more crack resistant materials, whereas blends with relatively higher complex modulus
(G*) and lower phase angles are more elastic and deformation resistant.
absolute value of complex modulus
([absolute value of [G.
Comparison of phase angle ([delta]) versus absolute value of the complex modulus
[absolute value of [G.
Figure 5a and b illustrates the evolution of the complex modulus
values at 90[degrees]C of the mobile and rigid amorphous phases of PET.
Torque, complex modulus
and viscosity are measured at a preselected strain amplitude.
In this range, the stress response is directly proportional to the strain value and the complex modulus
is independent of the strain level [14, 15].
Loss compliance, J" is the ratio of loss modulus, E", to the square of the complex modulus
Figure 3 shows the vG-P plots of phase angle ([delta]) as a function of the absolute values of complex modulus
(|G*|) for the neat PVDF and PCBp.
The variable time function allows measurements to duplicate traditional curemeter testing and generates complex modulus
and viscosity data over time at constant strain amplitude and frequency, according to the literature.
This formation increases the complex modulus
, which indicates resistance to rutting and contributes to good elastic properties of the modified BIT (4), (6).