closed shop

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closed shop

a requirement that all employees in a given workplace or organization be members of a specified TRADE UNION. There are two types of closed shop:
  1. pre-entry closed shop, where union membership is necessary to gain employment;
  2. post-entry closed shop, where union membership is necessary once employment has commenced.

The pre-entry closed shop, traditionally found in parts of the printing and food wholesaling industries, was often unilaterally imposed by unions, whereas the post-entry closed shop has often been formally recognized in Union Membership Agreements with managements. Many managers found the post-entry closed shop advantageous since it helped to ensure that union representatives speak for all employees. However, it can be viewed as an infringement of individual rights. See CONTRACT OF EMPLOYMENT.

closed shop

a requirement that all employees in a given workplace or ORGANIZATION be members of a specified TRADE UNION. Closed shops are often imposed by powerful trade unions as a means of restricting the supply of labour and maintaining high wage rates for members. See SUPPLY-SIDE ECONOMICS.
References in periodicals archive ?
Closed shops certainly gave employees massive negotiating muscle.
The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was dominant in Pacific shipyards, especially in the United States, and favoured closed shops. As a traditionalist labour association in North America, the AFL provided an umbrella organization for locals of international craft unions in shipbuilding and related manufacturing.
ALA'A AL HABASHI, WHO CLOSELY FOLLOWED THE OPERATION, MANY CLOSED SHOPS WERE RE- OPENED AND TEMPORARILY DECORATED TO BE FILMED.
The strike closed shops, schools, banks and offices in the summer capital Srinagar and other towns in the revolt-hit Muslim-majority Kashmir Valley, police and witnesses said.
Having a very high regard for North Wales, the sight of market towns with closed shops, boarded up public houses in many instances is a disgrace.
BOARDED UP: Some of the closed shops on Redcar High Street
These rackets have been enshrined in the law for many years, dating back to the time when state protectionism and closed shops were considered perfectly acceptable practices.
I was shocked by the poverty all around me - the closed shops and restaurants in downtown Tel Aviv, the unemployment, the stories of hunger and hopelessness.
Although the tough market has seen High Street casualties, it is said to have a silver lining for the remaining chains, as former customers of the closed shops are now looking for new stores in which to buy clothes.
Doing so produces the following results that indicate differences in the probability that establishments with closed shops or management recommends union membership and where unions affect managerial freedom have a given level of financial performance as compared to other establishments:
Now he's a mute ex-con who breaks into closed shops at night and benevolently accosts passersby into becoming his customers/victims.
The 1982 Employment Act sought to encourage periodic reviews of existing closed shops. It made it unfair for an employer to dismiss anyone for non-membership of a union, unless a closed shop agreement had been supported by 80 per cent of affected employees in a secret ballot within the previous five years.