certainly gave employees massive negotiating muscle.
The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was dominant in Pacific shipyards, especially in the United States, and favoured closed shops
. As a traditionalist labour association in North America, the AFL provided an umbrella organization for locals of international craft unions in shipbuilding and related manufacturing.
ALA'A AL HABASHI, WHO CLOSELY FOLLOWED THE OPERATION, MANY CLOSED SHOPS
WERE RE- OPENED AND TEMPORARILY DECORATED TO BE FILMED.
The strike closed shops
, schools, banks and offices in the summer capital Srinagar and other towns in the revolt-hit Muslim-majority Kashmir Valley, police and witnesses said.
Having a very high regard for North Wales, the sight of market towns with closed shops
, boarded up public houses in many instances is a disgrace.
BOARDED UP: Some of the closed shops
on Redcar High Street
These rackets have been enshrined in the law for many years, dating back to the time when state protectionism and closed shops
were considered perfectly acceptable practices.
I was shocked by the poverty all around me - the closed shops
and restaurants in downtown Tel Aviv, the unemployment, the stories of hunger and hopelessness.
Although the tough market has seen High Street casualties, it is said to have a silver lining for the remaining chains, as former customers of the closed shops
are now looking for new stores in which to buy clothes.
Doing so produces the following results that indicate differences in the probability that establishments with closed shops
or management recommends union membership and where unions affect managerial freedom have a given level of financial performance as compared to other establishments:
Now he's a mute ex-con who breaks into closed shops
at night and benevolently accosts passersby into becoming his customers/victims.
The 1982 Employment Act sought to encourage periodic reviews of existing closed shops
. It made it unfair for an employer to dismiss anyone for non-membership of a union, unless a closed shop
agreement had been supported by 80 per cent of affected employees in a secret ballot within the previous five years.