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Community Reinvestment Act (CRA)

Enacted by Congress in 1977, the CRA encourages banks to help meet the credit needs of their communities for housing and other purposes, particularly in neighborhoods with low or moderate incomes, while maintaining safe and sound operations.
Copyright © 2012, Campbell R. Harvey. All Rights Reserved.

Canada Revenue Agency

The tax collection agency for the Canadian government. It is responsible for collecting all federal taxes derived from sources other than tariffs and associated fees. It also collects income taxes on behalf of all provinces except Quebec and provincial corporate taxes except for Alberta and Quebec. The CRA is also responsible for collecting the goods and services tax, which is the Canadian VAT. See also: IRS, Notice of seizure.

Community Reinvestment Act

A 1977 U.S. law encouraging banks and other lending agencies to extend credit to low and moderate income persons wishing to buy a home. The original contained no penalties, but prohibited lending institutions from discriminating against a potential homeowner based on where he/she lives. Regulatory changes in 1995 and legislative amendment in 1999 are often blamed for encouraging banks to make excessively risky loans in exchange for the ability to offer investment and insurance services. Because of this, some believe the CRA is responsible for the housing bubble that contributed to the recession that began in 2008. See also: Credit Crunch, Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act

Credit Rating Agency

A company that provides investors with assessments of an investment's risk. The issuers of investments, especially debt securities, pay credit rating agencies to provide them with ratings. A high rating indicates low risk and may therefore encourage investors to buy a security. Additionally, banks may only invest in securities with a high rating from two or more credit rating agencies. The SEC recognizes 10 firms as credit rating agencies; Fitch, S&P, and Moody's are the three most prominent. However, the methods of credit ratings agencies have been subject to criticism. For example, most agencies gave high-risk mortgage-backed securities top ratings until they defaulted at the collapse of the housing bubble.
Farlex Financial Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All Rights Reserved


See credit reporting agency and Community Reinvestment Act.

The Complete Real Estate Encyclopedia by Denise L. Evans, JD & O. William Evans, JD. Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
CROs may employ clinical research associates to liaise with study sites, data collectors, data monitors, statisticians, technicians, clinicians and others to accomplish all of the tasks with a research study.
Offering professional training and education since 2001, PAREXEL Academy, based in Berlin, Germany, provides postgraduate courses for clinical research associates, study nurses, and study coordinators.
A10 provides the technical resources, often clinical research associates and registered nurses, who work as members of the investigative team to assess and monitor the safety and efficacy as the drug is used by larger control groups.
International associations offering investigator certification programmes include the American Clinical Research Professionals (ACRP), the Society of Clinical Research Associates (SoCRA) and the Drug Information Association (DIA); (7,8) however, a minimal number of researchers obtain such certification.
The Association of Clinical Research Professionals (ACRP), as well as the Society of Clinical Research Associates (SOCRA) requires that a nurse have two years of full-time clinical research experience or four years of part-time clinical research experience in order to be eligible for certification in the field.
Rosenthal helped GlaxoSmithKline design the trials, was a consultant to the company, and is medical director of Capital Clinical Research Associates, Rockville, Md., one of the study sites.
Rosenthal helped GlaxoSmithKline design the clinical trials, was a consultant to the company, and is medical director of Capital Clinical Research Associates, Rockville, Md., which conducts clinical trials of drugs and served as one of the study sites for the bupropion studies for SAD.
Clinical research associates use automated equipment to evaluate test results, ensuring that the study is conducted properly and meets regulations.
Medical technologists with 4 or more years of experience earn a median salary of $39,715, while biotech chemists with similar experience earn $78,625 and clinical research associates at pharmaceutical companies earn $67,414.
Although CROs began as small, specialized firms with specific offerings, by the late 1990s, study monitors or in-house clinical research associates (CRAs) performed all study startup activities, including all communication and document collection.

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