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Community Reinvestment Act (CRA)

Enacted by Congress in 1977, the CRA encourages banks to help meet the credit needs of their communities for housing and other purposes, particularly in neighborhoods with low or moderate incomes, while maintaining safe and sound operations.

Canada Revenue Agency

The tax collection agency for the Canadian government. It is responsible for collecting all federal taxes derived from sources other than tariffs and associated fees. It also collects income taxes on behalf of all provinces except Quebec and provincial corporate taxes except for Alberta and Quebec. The CRA is also responsible for collecting the goods and services tax, which is the Canadian VAT. See also: IRS, Notice of seizure.

Community Reinvestment Act

A 1977 U.S. law encouraging banks and other lending agencies to extend credit to low and moderate income persons wishing to buy a home. The original contained no penalties, but prohibited lending institutions from discriminating against a potential homeowner based on where he/she lives. Regulatory changes in 1995 and legislative amendment in 1999 are often blamed for encouraging banks to make excessively risky loans in exchange for the ability to offer investment and insurance services. Because of this, some believe the CRA is responsible for the housing bubble that contributed to the recession that began in 2008. See also: Credit Crunch, Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act

Credit Rating Agency

A company that provides investors with assessments of an investment's risk. The issuers of investments, especially debt securities, pay credit rating agencies to provide them with ratings. A high rating indicates low risk and may therefore encourage investors to buy a security. Additionally, banks may only invest in securities with a high rating from two or more credit rating agencies. The SEC recognizes 10 firms as credit rating agencies; Fitch, S&P, and Moody's are the three most prominent. However, the methods of credit ratings agencies have been subject to criticism. For example, most agencies gave high-risk mortgage-backed securities top ratings until they defaulted at the collapse of the housing bubble.


See credit reporting agency and Community Reinvestment Act.

References in periodicals archive ?
Aptiv Solutions has further added to its operational expertise in medical devices by hiring more than a dozen project managers, clinical research associates, and business development professionals with specific experience in supporting European medical device clients.
The Association of Clinical Research Professionals (ACRP), as well as the Society of Clinical Research Associates (SOCRA) requires that a nurse have two years of full-time clinical research experience or four years of part-time clinical research experience in order to be eligible for certification in the field.
Rosenthal helped GlaxoSmithKline design the trials, was a consultant to the company, and is medical director of Capital Clinical Research Associates, Rockville, Md.
Rosenthal helped GlaxoSmithKline design the clinical trials, was a consultant to the company, and is medical director of Capital Clinical Research Associates, Rockville, Md.
Clinical research associates are often called upon to write study protocols.
Clinical research associates use automated equipment to evaluate test results, ensuring that the study is conducted properly and meets regulations.
is clinical professor of psychiatry at Georgetown University Medical School and director of research at Capital Clinical Research Associates in Rockville, Maryland.
Another avenue Jared suggested for dental hygienists to consider is working as clinical research associates, where they learn about the protocols, visit sites to ensure data quality, and monitor study progress.
Palmyra, WI has earned her clinical research certification from the Society of Clinical Research Associates (SoCRA).
In addition to roles as research coordinators and clinical research associates, dental hygienists are certain to have the opportunity to develop studies of interest to the dental hygiene community and to serve as principal investigators on these projects.
First, the knowledge and experience of the research nurses and clinical research associates are among the top in the country.

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