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Community Reinvestment Act (CRA)

Enacted by Congress in 1977, the CRA encourages banks to help meet the credit needs of their communities for housing and other purposes, particularly in neighborhoods with low or moderate incomes, while maintaining safe and sound operations.

Canada Revenue Agency

The tax collection agency for the Canadian government. It is responsible for collecting all federal taxes derived from sources other than tariffs and associated fees. It also collects income taxes on behalf of all provinces except Quebec and provincial corporate taxes except for Alberta and Quebec. The CRA is also responsible for collecting the goods and services tax, which is the Canadian VAT. See also: IRS, Notice of seizure.

Community Reinvestment Act

A 1977 U.S. law encouraging banks and other lending agencies to extend credit to low and moderate income persons wishing to buy a home. The original contained no penalties, but prohibited lending institutions from discriminating against a potential homeowner based on where he/she lives. Regulatory changes in 1995 and legislative amendment in 1999 are often blamed for encouraging banks to make excessively risky loans in exchange for the ability to offer investment and insurance services. Because of this, some believe the CRA is responsible for the housing bubble that contributed to the recession that began in 2008. See also: Credit Crunch, Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act

Credit Rating Agency

A company that provides investors with assessments of an investment's risk. The issuers of investments, especially debt securities, pay credit rating agencies to provide them with ratings. A high rating indicates low risk and may therefore encourage investors to buy a security. Additionally, banks may only invest in securities with a high rating from two or more credit rating agencies. The SEC recognizes 10 firms as credit rating agencies; Fitch, S&P, and Moody's are the three most prominent. However, the methods of credit ratings agencies have been subject to criticism. For example, most agencies gave high-risk mortgage-backed securities top ratings until they defaulted at the collapse of the housing bubble.


See credit reporting agency and Community Reinvestment Act.

References in periodicals archive ?
Clinical Research Associate of the Year Bronze Award: Lee-Anne Duddy , Clinical Research Associate 2
Stuart Meredith, a PPD senior clinical research associate (CRA) based in the U.
In the New Clinical Research Associate category, PRA's Elizabeth Watson and Jon Faber won 1st and 3rd places, respectively.
Clinical Research Team of the Year Winner: ICON Clinical Research (Sweden/Germany) Christopher Klacker Franziska Endriss Michael Pieper Susanne Stein Silver: ICON Clinical Research (UK) Michelle Hotchkiss James Clancy Sara Tullberg Nigel Stenner Bronze: ICON Clinical Research (UK) Martin Clark Lynlee Burton Lauren Merry Marlisse Woodcock Clinical Research Associate of the Year 2008 Winner: Halley Hilton, ICON Clinical Research (Australia) Silver: Mathana Packianathan, ICON Clinical Research (Australia) Bronze: James Willson, ICON Clinical Research (UK) Clinical Project Manager of the Year 2008 Bronze: Nicola McBeath, ICON Clinical Research (UK)
Chiltern received the following awards: Gold: Clinical Department of the Year - Chiltern International Gold: Anne Tebbatt in the Project Manager category Gold: Kara Tanabe in Clinical Research Associate category Silver: Donna Sexton in Clinical Research Associate category
Nowell entered the clinical research arena when he joined Bayer plc as a Clinical Research Associate, subsequently assuming Clinical Trial Management responsibility and then international Project Management responsibility for a number of products in Bayer's development pipeline.
Clinical research associate staffing levels are more directly connected to the number of patients in a trial and the number of investigator sites needed for the trial.
Lisa Sorrells, Lead Clinical Research Associate, GlaxoSmithKline, accepted the Eagle Award for her company.
For example, 87% of all Phase 2 clinical research associate and monitor positions are outsourced, on average, across all therapeutic areas, according to the study.
The integration of ECOG and ACRIN patient advocacy and clinical research associate committees will bring together an impressive knowledge base representing the patient perspective and participant recruitment best practices - a significant support for getting the research done.
Prior to that Kate worked in the clinical trials industry as a Clinical Research Associate for Alkermes and Matritech.
Oracle's Siebel Clinical Trial Management System enables rapid, targeted recruitment and retention of investigators, analyzes and reports on global trial activities, and optimizes site performance through improved clinical research associate productivity.

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