Throughout the past two decades, the United States Supreme Court has gradually formed several procedural and substantive protections under the Fourteenth Amendment's Due Process Clause (1) limiting the size of punitive damages a State can award against civil defendants
In the civil cause of action, the defendant may be the same defendant being charged criminally; however, the civil defendant
is more likely to be an institutional or corporate defendant rather than an individual.
He went on to say that many of the notes sold by Tri-National were allegedly backed by New England and that Tri-National has been named as a civil defendant
in related regulatory action in Louisiana and other states that are similar in nature.
where civil defendants
had committed multiple contraventions, it was not