Dispersion

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Dispersion

In statistics, the placement of data points along a chart relative to an average or mean line. Dispersion is important to finance as the data points of say, a stock, determine the mean, which in turn helps determines the stock's trend. Dispersion is also used to determine volatility: data points all over the chart indicate that a stock has wild fluctuation in price.
References in periodicals archive ?
Wang, "The study of chromatic dispersion and chromatic dispersion slope of WI- and WII-type triple-clad single-mode fibers," Opt.
Thyagarajan, "--1800 ps/(nm-km) chromatic dispersion at 1.55 [micro]m in dual concentric core fibre," Electronics Letters, Vol.
This limitation along with the chromatic dispersion of an optical fibre restricts the transmission distance.
DWDM networks are characterized, as well as the outstanding performance of DCFs to compensate for chromatic dispersion and, in conjunction with Raman amplifiers, to amplify all wavelengths, thus guaranteeing a better power distribution along the optical fiber.
This review gives an overall idea regarding the use of external modulation and its advantages such as the elimination of fading effect and chromatic dispersion. The intensity modulation scheme is used in many experiments due to its less complexity, high efficiency and less cost.
The generated optical MMW signals are transmitted over Z-length downlink fiber to the base station (BS), and the two second-order sidebands will have different group velocities due to the fiber chromatic dispersion. The optical MMW signal becomes:
where A(t, z) is the optical field; z is the fiber length, [km]; [[alpha].sup.1] is the linear attenuation coefficient of an optical fiber, [[km.sup.-1]]; [[beta].sub.2] is the second-order parameter of chromatic dispersion, [[ps.sup.2]/nm]; [[beta].sub.3] is the third-order parameter of chromatic dispersion, [[ps.sup.3]/nm]; [gamma] is a nonlinear coefficient, [[W.sup.-1.] [km.sup.-1]]; t is the time, [s].
Compensation for chromatic dispersion, polarization mode dispersion and nonlinear effects occurring on a fiber-optic line, all of which are factors that lead to performance deterioration.
The chromatic dispersion is caused by the fact that it is impossible to create a completely monochromatic source of the light.
Electronic Chromatic Dispersion Compensation in WDM Coherent PM-QPSK Systems at 111 Gbit/s.
The ONA600 measures chromatic dispersion and, via an add-on module, spectral attenuation for all types of fibers and amplified links.
Concerning chromatic dispersion, NIST has developed two systems to measure relative group delay which broadens pulses and limits the system data rate.