Second, and more significantly, "slavery" cannot be invoked today without conjuring images of American chattel slavery
. While chattel slavery
did persist throughout the Middle Ages, most scholarship shows that chattel slavery
was no longer `widespread by the beginning of the eleventh century.
How has chattel slavery
managed to survive in Mauritania into the twenty-first century?
The institution of chattel slavery
was at long last formally abolished, but much of the racism and the racial oppression continued.
The rulers use the bias and ignorant hatred foisted by Black chattel slavery
to keep the masses of people separated, hence powerless.
, he said, blacks often purchased other blacks -- "and sometimes for good reason" and some blacks paid for their own freedom or the freedom of relatives.
In a profound sense, Europeans' chattel slavery
overseas resulted from the expansion of freedom at home.
When he reflects on the sad history of legal systems, especially those in which law has been the instrument of genocide, chattel slavery
, and other forms of injustice and inhumanity, he finds it difficult to be as complacent as, he argues, most other legal theorists - positivists, natural lawyers, and even Ronald Dworkin - seem to be.
He points to black abolitionists' insistence on a difference between British "wage slavery" and chattel slavery
as evidence of how deeply they felt the implications of brutalization.
Here, the author (associate professor of literature and an affiliated faculty member of Ethnic Studies at the University of California, San Diego) argues that the incarceration of Black people and other historically repressed groups in chain gangs, peon camps, prison plantations, and penitentiaries represents a ghostly perpetuation of chattel slavery
. He exposes how the Thirteenth Amendment's exception clause--allowing for enslavement as "punishment for a crime"--has inaugurated forms of racial capitalist misogynist incarceration that serve as haunting returns of conditions African people endured in the barracoons and slave ship holds of the Middle Passage, on plantations, and in chattel slavery
Constitution, and the practice of forced labor in our nation's prisons, chain gangs, prison plantations, and peon camps, arguing that the incarceration of black people and other historically repressed groups amounts to a perpetuation of chattel slavery
"It contradicted my need to reclaim an African identity, free from the illegitimate institution that was chattel slavery
. It also meant that my children would not have to be defined by that evil period of history.
Independence and the end of chattel slavery
in Haiti did not result in the creation of a free society, and Haitians have been exploited by a series of corrupt and ruthless demagogues and tyrants such as the Duvaliers.