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capital accumulationsee CAPITAL FORMATION.
- 1the process of adding to the net physical CAPITAL STOCK of an economy in an attempt to achieve greater total output. The accumulation of CAPITAL GOODS represents foregone CONSUMPTION, which necessitates a reward to capital in the form of INTEREST, greater PROFITS or social benefit derived. The rate of accumulation of an economy's physical stock of capital is an important determinant of the rate of growth of an economy and is represented in various PRODUCTION FUNCTIONS and ECONOMIC GROWTH models. A branch of economics, called DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS, devotes much of its analysis to determining appropriate rates of capital accumulation, type of capital required and types of investment project to maximize ‘development’ in underdeveloped countries (see DEVELOPING COUNTRY). In developed countries, the INTEREST RATE influences SAVINGS and INVESTMENT (capital accumulation) decisions, to a greater or lesser degree, in the private sector (see KEYNESIAN ECONOMICS) and can therefore be indirectly influenced by government. Government itself invests in the economy's INFRASTRUCTURE. This direct control over capital accumulation, and the indirect control over private investment, puts the onus of achieving the economy's optimal growth path on to the government. The nature of capital accumulation (whether CAPITAL WIDENING or CAPITAL DEEPENING) is also of considerable importance. See also CAPITAL CONSUMPTION, INVENTION, INNOVATION, CAPITAL-OUTPUT RATIO.
- the process of increasing the internally available CAPITAL of a particular firm by retaining earnings to add to RESERVES.