were found throughout much of North America until about 12,000 years ago, and more recently ranged throughout the Southwest and north into the Pacific Northwest, including British Columbia.
The California condor
still relies on human intervention for its survival --the constant fight against lead poisoning, consumption of trash, loss of critical habitat and these bird's perpetual curiosity keep it on the brink of extinction.
Hematologic and biochemical reference ranges for captive California condors
As a nation, we have invested tremendous thought and effort in creating a recovery success story for the California condor
Lead exposure among a reintroduced population of California condors
in northern Arizona and southern Utah.
Fish & Wildlife Service's California Condor
Recovery Program worked diligently to rehabilitate ailing birds, removing them from the wild and launching captive breeding programs.
From a low of fewer than 20 animals left in the late 1970s to a current count of more than 200, one can say that the California condor
has, for the time being, been physically saved.
Aside from the ecological significance of the condor's recovery, the California condor
was once beheld as a cultural icon of the Wasco people.
Once on the brink of extinction, there are now more California condors
both in the wild and in captivity in at least a hall" century.
Zoo, which has started vaccinating its California condors
agaist West Nile Virus, is hoping that these endangered species will be immune to this potentially deadly disease should it hit the West Coast this spring.
Captive-breeding dilemmas often pitted the welfare of individual animals against the needs of their species: The last wild California condors
were removed from their habitat to start a captive-reared population; black-footed ferrets were coaxed to ejaculate by having electric probes inserted in their anuses; experimental breeding in some species led to uncomfortable ailments in offspring.
(below, left) are one of the most endangered species on Earth.