[alpha]-PD-L1 treatment also greatly increased the percent population of monocytes/macrophages (Figure 3(c): [TF.sub.(-[alpha]-PD-L1)] = 4.92 [+ or -] 1.29%; [TF.sub.(+[alpha]-PD_L1)] = 12.8 [+ or -] 2.92%, p = 0.0016) and decreased the percentage of macrophages expressing Tgm2 (Figure 3(d): [TF.sub.(-[alpha]PD-L1)] = 18.58 [+ or -] 5.69%; [TF.sub.(+[alpha]PD-L1]) = 2.1 [+ or -] 2.17%, p = 0.0034), Cxcl9
(Figure 3(e): [TF.sub.(-[alpha]PD-L1)] = [TF.sub.(+[alpha]PD-L1)] = 1.52 [+ or -] 1.24%, p = 0.002), and Nos2 (Figure 3(f): [TF.sub.(-[alpha]PD-L1)] = 97.99 [+ or -] 1.62%; [TF.sub.(+[alpha]PD-L1)] = 50.89 [+ or -] 18.07%, p = 0.00086), essentially normalizing the M1/M2 macrophage polarization distribution back to SH status.
The concentrations of CXCL9
and CXCL11 in BALF were determined using commercial ELISA kits (R&D System, Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA).[sup]
(10) Thus, NOD1 activation of CXCL9
, CXCL10, and CXCL11 transcription via type I IFN requires nuclear translocation of ISGF3, a complex composed of Stat1, Stat2, and IRF9.
DE genes Samples Upregulated Downregulated C versus Pcdhgb2 Ubd, Ttr, M [intersection] F Cxcl9
, Serpina3n, versus Irg1, Odf1, Trpv4 M [intersection] A versus M F versus Ifit1, AABR06089930.1, M [intersection] C LOC100912860 Cd80, versus M Tfec, Il1rn A versus Alas2, Plac8, C3, M [intersection] C Angptl1, Bcl2a1, S100a4, versus M Cndp1 Il15ra, Ptprcap, Lgals3, Ccl2, LOC691141, Ptx3, Itgal, Pram1, Hk3, Pate4, A2m F versus Ada, Hsf5, Rn50_1_2682.1, M [intersection] A Slc16a12 Cd22 versus M Table 3: Common significant GO terms for DE genes.
These 27 SNPs in 12 chemokine genes, included 4 SNPs (rs1024610, rs1024611, rs13900, and rs4586) of CCL2 [21, 22], 5 SNPs (rs4251719, rs2306630, rs2107538, rs9355610, and rs2280788) of CCL5 [12, 23, 24], 1 SNP (rs854680) of CCL16 , 2 SNPs (rs223828 and rs223895) of CCL17 [26-28], 3 SNPs (rs951005, rs2492358, and rs2812378) of CCL21 [29-31], 1 SNP (rs4359426) of CCL22 , 2 SNPs (rs2302004 and rs2302005) of CCL24 , 3 SNPs (rs2227306, rs2227543, and rs4694178) of CXCL8 , 2 SNPs (rs2276886 and rs2869460) of CXCL9
[14, 35], 1 SNP (rs2869462) of CXCL10 , 2 SNPs (rs1801157 and rs2839693) of CXCL12 [13, 15], and 1 SNP (rs2277680) of CXCL16 .
A similar trend was observed for Th1-associated mediators (IL-12p40, INF-[gamma], INF-[gamma]-inducible CXCL9
, and CXCL10), which are strong chemoattractants for CD4+/CD8+ T-effector cells (Figure 5, panel B).
In regard of migration of Tregs, it was found that local proinflammatory cytokines lead to the secretion of CXCL9
and CXCL10 by sinusoidal and parenchyma cells, which could recruit [CXCR3.sup.high] circulating Tregs into the liver.
Urinary Chemokines CXCL9
and CXCL10 are non-invasive markers of renal allograft rejection and BK viral infection.
Significantly higher serum levels of chemokines (C-C and C-X-C) including CXCL8, CXCL9
, CXCL10, and CCL2 have been observed in CU and are not correlated with either the clinical parameters of the disorder or the outcome of basophil histamine release (BHR) and/or ASST assays .
CXCR3, a chemokine receptor found on [T.sub.H]1 cells [10-12], and its ligands CXCL9
and CXCL10 have also been found to be up-regulated in DLE lesional skin .
In aging mice, at the mRNA level, several genes specific for T cells (CD3, CD8, T cell receptor, and LY75), antigen presentation ([beta]2-microglobulin and H2 molecules), T lymphocytes chemotaxis (CXCL9
, CXCL10, CXCL11, and CCL5), and adhesion of leucocytes (ICAM-1) were overexpressed in the RPE/choroid complex and the retina [67, 68].
Saint Paul, MN, October 25, 2013 --(PR.com)-- Mouse CCL4, CXCL9
, and CXCL10 are important members of the chemokine family of proteins.