Finally, while they find some support for the idea of an international two-step flow, they-along with others-question the validity of the CNN effect
in terms of media impact on political figures and public policy.
The Kuwaiti invasion, and the perceived threat to Saudi Arabian oil supplies, sends gasoline prices higher, but, perhaps of equal concern to retailers, keeps their customers indoors, glued to their television sets in an obsessive state that comes to be known as "the CNN effect
Aid agencies' desire for photo opportunities is known as the CNN Effect
The CNN effect
is not as strong as it was 12 years ago,' said David Healy, an industry analyst at Burnham Securities.
The impact of this kind of media coverage has been dubbed "the CNN effect," referring to the widely available round-the-clock broadcasts of the Cable News Network.
The CNN effect thus is a double-edged sword--a strategic enabler and a potential operational risk.
In an age of multiple 24-hour cable news networks using satellite technology, the CNN effect will exert even greater pressures on the tension between the "control freaks" and the "anarchists.
A valid concern is that the President and his immediate advisers, as a result of the CNN effect, will have the capability and possibly the desire to micromanage the war.
But the closer one looks at those incidents that supposedly prove a CNN Effect, where dramatic and/or real-time images appear to have forced policy makers into making sudden changes, the more the Effect shrinks.
Even many military officers, who might be expected to criticize media performance, have found the CNN Effect to be less than it is billed.
foreign policy establishment was disabused of this notion in Somalia, an experience that probably permanently shrunk this facet of the CNN Effect.