Similar to H3N8 CIV infections, H3N2 CIV infections in dogs are associated with mild upper respiratory tract disease, including frequent coughing and fever, although infection of the lungs and more severe disease and death occur on occasion and are probably associated with mixed infections by other viruses or bacteria (14).
To our knowledge, no transfers of either CIV subtype to humans have been documented.
The H3N2 CIV outbreak likely started in February 2015 and spread rapidly through dog training classes, animal shelters, boarding kennels, and veterinary clinics in the Chicago area by early March, at which time initial reports of an unusual respiratory disease in dogs were received (K.
During the last weeks of March and into April 2015, H3N2 CIV was detected in many animal shelters in Chicago and in the neighboring areas of Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin but was absent from other regions of the United States (Figure 1).
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