The Bracero Program
was undoubtedly an important factor in a set of objectively unfavourable circumstances that militated against the success of farm worker organization in the 1940s and 1950s.
Thus, a circular flow of migrant workers under the Bracero Program
morphed into a one-way flow of migrant traffic, increasingly dependent on coyotes--i.e., tough border crossing guides associated with drug cartels and other Mexican crime networks.
behind the Bracero Program
, with lax enforcement of minimum wages and
(42.) For more on braceros and health during the Bracero Program
, see Natalia Molina, "Borders, Laborers, and Racialized Medicalization: Mexican Immigration and US Public Health Practices in the 20th Century," American Journal of Public Health 101(6) (2011).
Between 1943 and 1947, the federal government enacted different laws that ensured the supply of foreign workers and created the Bracero Program
, impeding the importation of Puerto Rican workers (Kirstein 1977, 49).
So great was the demand for north-of-the-border toil at south-of-the-border wage rates that of course Bracero Program
quotas couldn't keep up.
government to maintain the Bracero program
. During World War II, fewer than 75,000 Mexican workers entered the United States each year, but by the mid-1950s, this number had increased to 450,000 annually.
The agreement between the United States and Mexico that established the Bracero Program
indicated specifically that no one under age 14 could participate.
The impact of national quotas for immigrants from Mexico coupled with the end of the Bracero Program
, however, meant that thousands of Mexicans lost their legal right to work in the United States.
With the final central essay covering the period between 1980 and 1983, Body and Nation does emphasize the early and mid-twentieth century more than the closing decades of the era, although Natalie Molina's essay on public health and immigration, which begins by examining a 1916 typhus outbreak in Los Angeles County and the health screenings required of participants in the mid-century guest worker Bracero Program
, concludes with a discussion of medical deportations in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries.
A first-generation college student, her parents came to the United States to work in agriculture with the Bracero Program
. "They really felt that school was the way to go, the ticket out," Zarate said.
The opening chapter explores labor migration policies, contract labor (as in the case of the Bracero program
in the early 1940s), and both legal and unauthorized immigration spanning the 1940s-1970s.