Barrier

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Barrier

1. See: Trade barrier.

2. See: Barrier Option.
References in periodicals archive ?
Proinflammatory cytokine like TNF-[alpha] can directly impair the seminiferous epithelium by damaging the expression and assembly of the junctional proteins leading to an impairment of the blood-testis barrier [70].
Sertoli cells in the basal part-side adjacent cells connected by tight junctions form the blood-testis barrier and seminiferous epithelium are divided into two portions of basal and lumen adjacent that creates a safe environment and protects spermatozoa, keeping it isolated from the blood.
Cheng, "TGF-^3 regulates the blood-testis barrier dynamics via the p38 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway: An In Vivo Study," Endocrinology, vol.
Key genes affected by CBZ, IPR and CCK were Tnfa and Tgffl, genes encoding cytoskeletal proteins such as actins, tubulin and nectin (Pvrl) and also the claudins family (Cldn), E-cadherin, occludin, ZO1 (Tjpl), ZO2 (Tjp2), and epsin 3, in coherence with most of the recent literature concerning blood-testis barrier (BTB) dynamics (Jiang et al., 2014; Kopera et al., 2009).
[8.] Dym M (1973) The fine structure of the monkey (Macaca) Sertoli cell and its role in maintaining the blood-testis barrier. Anat Rec 175: 639-656.
The effect of sleep loss on physical barriers such as the intestinal barrier or blood-testis barrier is not reported; however, gut bacteria are present in blood after sleep deprivation [26] and both sleep-deprived and sleep-restricted rats exhibit lower sperm viabilities associated with an increase in endothelial NOS expression [27].
"Sertolin mediates blood-testis barrier restructuring," Endocrinology 155(4); 1520-1531.
Cadmium-induced testicular toxicity is caused by the interactions between complex networks [15], involving the inhibition of oxidative stress [8], which leads to an increase in germ cell apoptosis [9] and/or distortion of the blood-testis barrier with subsequent germ cell loss, testicular edema, and hemorrhage [18, 42].
In addition, the high dose of 100mg/kg/day could damage the blood-testis barrier (BTB) and directly insult the elongated spermatids.
Furthermore, according to some Studies, usage of antioxidants and vitamin B,E and C can lower infertility through reducing damages caused by free radicals, sperms DNA regeneration and preservation, and through strengthening blood-testis barrier [2,8,26].
The blood-testis barrier is damaged, and the immune system becomes inoculated with testis antigens and anti-sperm antibodies that cause immunologic infertility during reproductive years.
Also, the small molecule is able to pass easily through the blood-testis barrier, a major obstacle in the past.