Although he has since secured several patents in blood substitutes
and artificial cells, separate challenges confront inventors of emerging technologies in interdisciplinary research.
What Northfield didn't tell the public is that an earlier, unpublished study of PolyHeme showed that 10 of 81 patients who received the blood substitute
suffered heart attacks and two of those patients died.
The first generation of perfluorocarbons used as blood substitutes
in mice during the 1960s had a major drawback -- poorly eliminated by the organism, they accumulated in the tissues of the body.
The other problem with fluorocarbon-based blood substitutes
is that they only work for about six hours, which is fine for a patient who needs extra blood quickly for an operation, but not for a patient who needs a transfusion to counteract a long-term condition like anemia.
The race lost its third major player last year when a company just a year or so away from proclaiming a successful blood substitute
halted tests abruptly--after 24 of 52 recipients died.
First-generation blood substitutes
have the major goal of augmenting the oxygen-carrying capacity of patients' red blood cells, which contain the hemoglobin.
The blood substitute
also has important implications for chilled, bloodless surgery, possibly allowing for major surgery that requires little or no donated blood for transfusion.
One project, to research a universal, artificial blood substitute
, should win our support.
Working alongside colleague Christopher (Vince Colosimo), Edward struggles to create a stable, synthetic blood substitute
Their food source (humans) is running out, so Sam Neill sets scientist Ethan Hawke the task of discovering a blood substitute
In a clear nod to current environmental concerns, this precious resource has almost run dry and the dominant species faces possible extinction unless it can engineer a blood substitute
. Undead scientist Edward (Ethan Hawke), who was turned by his soldier brother Frankie (Michael Dorman), is a leading researcher at Bromley Marks, the world leader in blood pharmacy, run by the conniving Charles Bromley (Sam Neill).
The Leinster star, who played at full-back during their narrow win over the London club in April, said the players had not focussed on Tom Williams' late withdrawal as a blood substitute
because his replacement Nick Evans had missed his drop goal attempt and the Irishmen went on to Heineken Cup glory.