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The norms and shared attitudes that pervade an ORGANIZATION. It may be expressed in symbols, rituals and the language used by organization members. It thus constitutes the distinctive characteristics of an organization. In recent years managerial interest in organizational culture has grown enormously It is believed that the culture will influence how individuals behave at work and hence will affect both individual and organizational performances.

A number of types of culture have been identified in this respect:

  1. power culture, characterized by an emphasis on personal charisma, risk-taking and a low level of respect for procedures. This might be found in a small entrepreneurial organization, where power tends to be concentrated in the entrepreneur;
  2. rôle culture, characterized by well-defined procedures and job roles, and an emphasis on conformity. This might be found in an established BUREAUCRACY for example government administration;
  3. task culture, characterized by an emphasis on problem-solving by expert teams. Groups are formed to deal with particular problems. Once the task is completed the group may be disbanded. Here the culture is one which attaches importance to expertise, though in fact expertise may be less developed in organizations of this sort than in role culture organizations, where job roles are more specialized. Task culture places a much greater emphasis on flexibility and creativity than does role culture;
  4. person-oriented culture, characterized by an emphasis on meeting the needs of individuals in the organization. This is often found in small, ‘alternative’ organizations. It may also characterize small organizations composed mainly of PROFESSIONALS, such as small consultancy companies, where it is deemed important that individuals be given some freedom to shape their jobs so that they can pursue particular professional or other ‘acceptable’ outside interests (for example, being a local councillor).

A concern of many managers in recent years has been that the prevailing culture of their organization is inappropriate, or even obstructive, to a desired change in objectives. For instance, a role culture, where jobs are specialized and well-defined, could obstruct creativity and hence prevent an organization from becoming more entrepreneurial. As a result much attention recently has been devoted to changing cultures. It is doubtful, however, whether managers can actually achieve dramatic cultural change in the short term. Culture is influenced by a complex of factors, such as the character and background of the workforce, many of which are to some extent independent of managerial action. See MANAGEMENT STYLE. MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC, EXCELLENCE CULTURE.

References in periodicals archive ?
A comparative study from Israel, has established a significant correlation between blood culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for isolation and identification of various kinds of blood borne bacteria.
If there were the same level of lack of skin cleanliness, is the same level of bacteria being introduced into the blood stream as the blood culture bottle?
Blood culture was taken from all neonates suspected to have sepsis.
We detected Bifidobacterium bacteremia by using 2 automated blood culture systems and aerobic bottles.
After the initial illness, he was readmitted several times with symptoms of endocarditis, but all of his blood cultures were negative, attributed to antibiotic therapy.
A positive blood culture was considered to be a contaminant if any of the following organisms was detected: alpha-haemolytic streptococci, Micrococcus spp.
7040 blood cultures sent with Bactec Ped Plus blood culture bottles to the microbiology laboratory from hospitalized patients in Gaziantep Children's Hospital between 07.
Participants were instructed to collect information on 100 consecutive positive blood culture cases or for 90 days, whichever came first.
To improve the quality of blood culture examinations, a well-established transportation system within the hospital is essential.
KEY WORDS: Typhoid, Typhidot, Sensitivity, Specificity, Blood culture.
Flagged positive blood culture broths (6ml from aerobic vials, 10ml from anaerobic vials) were injected into BD Vacutainer tubes (SSTII gel tube for aerobic vials, non-additive Z tube for anaerobic vial), followed by centrifugation (2,000g and 10 min for aerobic vials; 4,000g and 10 min for anaerobic vials).