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The norms and shared attitudes that pervade an ORGANIZATION. It may be expressed in symbols, rituals and the language used by organization members. It thus constitutes the distinctive characteristics of an organization. In recent years managerial interest in organizational culture has grown enormously It is believed that the culture will influence how individuals behave at work and hence will affect both individual and organizational performances.

A number of types of culture have been identified in this respect:

  1. power culture, characterized by an emphasis on personal charisma, risk-taking and a low level of respect for procedures. This might be found in a small entrepreneurial organization, where power tends to be concentrated in the entrepreneur;
  2. rôle culture, characterized by well-defined procedures and job roles, and an emphasis on conformity. This might be found in an established BUREAUCRACY for example government administration;
  3. task culture, characterized by an emphasis on problem-solving by expert teams. Groups are formed to deal with particular problems. Once the task is completed the group may be disbanded. Here the culture is one which attaches importance to expertise, though in fact expertise may be less developed in organizations of this sort than in role culture organizations, where job roles are more specialized. Task culture places a much greater emphasis on flexibility and creativity than does role culture;
  4. person-oriented culture, characterized by an emphasis on meeting the needs of individuals in the organization. This is often found in small, ‘alternative’ organizations. It may also characterize small organizations composed mainly of PROFESSIONALS, such as small consultancy companies, where it is deemed important that individuals be given some freedom to shape their jobs so that they can pursue particular professional or other ‘acceptable’ outside interests (for example, being a local councillor).

A concern of many managers in recent years has been that the prevailing culture of their organization is inappropriate, or even obstructive, to a desired change in objectives. For instance, a role culture, where jobs are specialized and well-defined, could obstruct creativity and hence prevent an organization from becoming more entrepreneurial. As a result much attention recently has been devoted to changing cultures. It is doubtful, however, whether managers can actually achieve dramatic cultural change in the short term. Culture is influenced by a complex of factors, such as the character and background of the workforce, many of which are to some extent independent of managerial action. See MANAGEMENT STYLE. MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC, EXCELLENCE CULTURE.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson
References in periodicals archive ?
Febrile children who were clinically suspected to be enteric fever, but blood culture negative was not included in the study.
BD BACTEC FX is an automated, continuous-monitoring blood culture system which utilizes fluorescence technology for the detection of microorganisms.
Because candidemia is a reportable condition in the Denver metropolitan area, all surveillance area laboratories report Candida-positive blood cultures to CDPHE.
Presumed sepsis was defined if the blood culture was negative but there was a strong clinical suspicion for infection.
Those with positive blood culture for Salmonella typhi were diagnosed as having typhoid fever.
Further, while the published results suggest eight contaminations during the study period, the presentation of the results at the conference indicated there were 15 contaminated blood cultures.
A bacteria panel, cleared by the FDA in May 2018, identifies five of the most common and deadly sepsiscausing species of bacteria: Enterococcus faecium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus, (8) In a prospective pivotal trial that included 11 centers and more than 1,400 subjects, test results were achieved 2.5 days faster than with blood culture with excellent accuracy, including overall average sensitivity of 90 percent and overall average specificity of 98 percent.
Depending on the results from the three pre-incubation groups, TTD were seen at the 37[degrees]C blood culture bottles.
A total of 463 blood cultures were obtained in the 205 patients and more than one blood culture was drawn from 108 patients.
Reller, "Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen test using positive blood culture bottles as an alternative method to diagnose pneumococcal bacteremia," Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol.
Conclusion: Our study revealed high specificity and positive predictive values of PCR suggesting that PCR is more reliable, rapid and specific adjunct of blood culture for diagnosis of NS.