If we care about how much the two distributions overlap each other, we should calculate what is known as an "age-standardized" measure of the black-white gap, defined as the difference in the black and white
average scores in a given grade divided by the standard deviation in scores in that grade Applying this approach to my example, one would conclude that the black-white gap has not changed across grades.
How else could Philadelphia residents respond, the report concluded, when confronted by practices "subversive o f the established orders of society," such as "the unusual union of black and white
walking arm in arm in social intercourse.
Ayers analyzes the pattern of lynchings during their peak, the 1880s and 1890s, and finds the highest concentration in two regions that shared low rural population density, a fairly high proportion of blacks, and considerable migrancy among black and white
USO dances were segregated--between black and white
troops--during the first part of the war, until the USO opened the integrated "Rainbow Club.
The fact that the "countryman," the man with whom Chesnutt can converse, is German and not a Southern white underscores Chesnutt's alienation from both black and white
cultures and the extent to which his self-description as "neither fish[,] flesh, nor fowl--neither 'nigger', poor white, nor 'buckrah' "is apt (Journals 157).
The Purple Flower's accessibility to white performers - who can play either White Devils or light-skinned Us's - makes it particularly useful in predominantly white institutions, where white directors sometimes hesitate to direct African American plays focused unambiguously on "the black experience," and black and white
students can thus be limited to a white repertoire.
He currently serves as Secretary of the Board of Theatre Communications Group and has extensive experience in both black and white
theaters at various budget levels and sizes nationwide.