However, it has been observed from previous researches that Black and Scholes model is reasonably efficient in explaining the option prices in several countries markets (Latane and Rendleman 1976; Mac B eth and Merville 1979; Manaster and Rendleman, 1982).
The pricing efficiency of options market can be stated to be prevailing, when there is no significant deviation exists between the theoretical option prices obtained from the Black and Scholes model and the observed market prices of the options.
The pricing efficiency of options market can be stated to be prevailing, when there is no significant deviation exists between the theoretical option price obtained from Black and Scholes model and the observed market price of the options.
His topics include stochastic processes, numerical methods, European option pricing, and pricing outside the standard Black and Scholes model
. Readers are assumed to be students of finance and familiar with R, but he summarizes the basics.
Development of the Black and Scholes model was based on a number of assumptions.
While the well known Black-Scholes option pricing model has been shown to provide good estimations of option prices overall (See Black and Scholes, 1972, Galai 1977 and 1978), Macbeth and Merville (1979) and Rubenstein (1985) show that the Black and Scholes model miss prices deep out of the money options.
This further suggests that the problem can be corrected by altering the distributional assumptions utilized in the Black and Scholes model.
The compound option model contains four extra parameters with respect to the standard Black and Scholes model to capture the effects of information costs and the effects of leverage via the face value of debt, its maturity and the discounting factors.
Mondher.Bellalah@eco.u-cergy.fr Table 1 Simulation and comparison of the Black and Scholes model and our model for the values of European equity options The following parameters are used: V [[lambda].sub.s] = [[lambda].sub.s] [[lambda].sub.v] =0 = 0.1%, [[lambda].
The Black and Scholes model
uses the risk-free rate to represent this constant and known rate.
The statistic above is employed to test the joint hypothesis that the dividend corrected Black and Scholes model
provides accurate estimates of call option prices and that call options are correctly priced around option expiration.(3) Mean values of [Mathematical Expression Omitted] that are significantly different from zero support rejection of the joint hypothesis.