The nature of semantic organization in the two languages of a bilingual individual
affects influences their performance on verbal fluency tasks.
A bilingual individual
uses both languages actively, even when only one language is being used in a monolingual context (Bialystok, 2007, 2010).
The most widely used technique in these guidelines is the model proposed by Brislin (1970, 1980), which consists of a series of translations and back-translations of the original instrument by bilingual individuals
. This technique involves four steps: (1) forward-translation of the English instrument into the target language by a bilingual individual
, (2) back-translation of the translated instrument into English by another bilingual individual
, (3) comparative review of the original English and back-translated English versions of the instrument for any inconsistencies, and (4) revision of the translated instrument through collaborative work by the bilingual translators (and possibly additional bilingual individuals
This effort to form values in Quechua illustrates the cerebral processes of a bilingual individual
. For example, Ernesto prepares the thought in Spanish with the words, "Acaso no podria decirse," but he finishes it with the Quechua terms, "yawar rumi." From one conceptual base, the young protagonist must manage the conflict inherent between his two language processing systems in order to construct ideas about the world in which he lives, how he relates to it and who he is.
In fact, a bilingual individual
versed in English may be at a disadvantage when compared to entering a non-enclave market.
In stage 1 I selected one prelingually deaf bilingual individual
who translated the scale items into ASL.
It posits that reading performance is particularly hampered when the bilingual individual
has deficits in both languages.
The challenge in exploring these issues lies with selecting an appropriate level of analysis, given that clients, counselors, and supervisors can be bilingual or multilingual and that either the bilingual individual
's mother tongue or English, or both, can be his or her dominant or preferred language.
What are the ethical dilemmas when a monolingual English speaker hires a bilingual individual
to conduct interviews in a language other than English?