CHIPS has adopted all three of these measures, significantly reducing settlement risk, especially unwinding risk, to its members.(33) While a participant is free to set its bilateral credit limit for another CHIPS participant, both its collateral requirement and loss sharing obligations vary with this limit.
(32) The numbers in the example are obtained by assuming that the loss sharing agreements specify that each member's share of loss is equal to the ratio of its the bilateral credit limit to Dates Bank to the sum of all bilateral credit limits Dates receives.
Therefore, efforts to reduce unwinding risk concentrate on reducing the possibility of settlement failures, which often include controlling credit risk.(28) Various measures have been introduced, and three are particularly well developed: bilateral credit limits for individual participants and multilateral debit limits for the system to control credit risk exposures, collateral requirements, and loss sharing agreements to reduce unwinding risk.
Bilateral credit limits and multilateral debit limits.
While an individual institution sets its own bilateral credit limits, its multilateral net debit limit is often based on the sum of the bilateral credit limits it receives from all other participants in the system.(30) For example, assume Dates Bank is a member of a netting system XYZ, which has 101 participants.
Some clearing organizations require each participant to establish bilateral credit limits with every other participant whereby the volume of payments received from each other participant can exceed the volume sent to each other participant only by a predetermined amount.
Currently, it employs admission standards; bilateral credit limits, which are used by each participant to establish its maximum exposure to each other participant in the event of a default; net debit caps, which are based on all bilateral credit limits established for each participant; explicit loss-sharing rules, which are based on the bilateral limits; and collateral requirements to ensure timely settlement.