China has acceded to the Berne Convention
Qatar is also a member of the Patent Cooperation Treaty, WIPO Copyright Treaty, WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty, Berne Convention
for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, and Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property.
Addressing "the Tunisian experience in the copyright field," Director General of the Tunisian Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Organisation (OTDAV) Youssef Ben Brahim reviewed the various agreements and conventions inked by Tunisia to protect intellectual property, recalling that Tunisia had been among the 1st ten countries to sign the Berne Convention
for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works in 1886.
Notwithstanding the capacious definition of the reproduction right, the same flexibilities within the Berne Convention
that have already allowed states to make targeted exceptions also allow them to consider the defendant's method of copying as a structural feature of the reproduction right itself.
Qatar has previously acceded to a number of international conventions for the protection of copyright and related rights, such as the Berne Convention
for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, the first international convention to protect the rights of authors, performers and producers of phonograms, as well as the WIPO Copyright Treaty And the WIPO Treaty on the Protection of Performances and Phonograms.
Iran has not signed the Berne Convention
for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works and instead relies on domestic laws.
Japan is a member of the Berne Convention
, an agreement between 168 countries worldwide to comply with certain copyright registration and minimum protection requirements.
In 1976 and 1998, Congress adopted life-plus-50-year and then life-plus-70-year terms to provide the three-generation copyright protection envisioned by international norms defined in the 1948 Brussels Revision of the Berne Convention
on the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works.
(137) While up to the late nineteenth century formalities were generally a prerequisite for the existence or exercise of copyrights, the 1908 revision of the Berne Convention
for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works established that international copyright arises automatically and is enforced independently of formalities:
for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, the WIPO Copyright Treaty and the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS).
(9) Therefore, this Article will analyze two intellectual property examples, one from Berne Convention
and the other from the Paris Convention, where state law supplements federal law to provide the minimum level of legal protection required under each treaty.
(1) This periodisation starts with the Foundation Stage in the 1950s, continues into the Primitive Stage lasting until 1980, to be succeeded by the Formalization Stage which followed the American ratification of the Berne Convention
on Copyright in 1988.