By inducting ordinary consumers into their scheme, organized e-crime rings are able to complete their crimes (moving cash and bearer instruments
across international frontiers) and are, for the nonce, complicating law enforcements' efforts to pursue them.
As long as criminality remains in the underground of aliases, coded messages, false documents, bearer instruments
, and clandestine operations, it is often undetectable to even seasoned investigators.
Cash isn't just spending money, it can also be bearer instruments
, cashiers' cheques, money orders, travellers cheques.
All of the Debentures are bearer instruments
and may be surrendered with coupons for conversion or redemption at the offices of Bankers Trust Company in London, Credit Suisse in Zurich and Banque Indosuez in Luxembourg.
The IBUs will not be permitted to issue bearer instruments
or cheques and all payment transactions will need to be undertaken through bank transfers.
The government also committed to consider the option of an explicit ban on bearer instruments
Lottery tickets are bearer instruments
, which means whoever presents the ticket is entitled to payment.
The central bank said it is also bringing the minimum declaration amount in line with international standards, raising the requirement to declare cash and bearer instruments
such as cheques to 100,000 dirhams ($27,230), or the equivalent in foreign currencies, from 40,000 dirhams.
In other words, when entering or leaving a country, although there may be requirements to disclose or declare cash or bearer instruments
over USD/EUR 10,000, there is no comparable requirement for stored value cards.
Privatization vouchers were bearer instruments
that were freely tradable, and they typically were bought and sold using U.
Campaign against bearer instruments
has also led to diversion of funds towards the share market.
DigiCash technology offers the security and privacy that is inherent in traditional bearer instruments
such as coins and bank notes, but with the flexibility and power of the Internet.