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The norms and shared attitudes that pervade an ORGANIZATION. It may be expressed in symbols, rituals and the language used by organization members. It thus constitutes the distinctive characteristics of an organization. In recent years managerial interest in organizational culture has grown enormously It is believed that the culture will influence how individuals behave at work and hence will affect both individual and organizational performances.

A number of types of culture have been identified in this respect:

  1. power culture, characterized by an emphasis on personal charisma, risk-taking and a low level of respect for procedures. This might be found in a small entrepreneurial organization, where power tends to be concentrated in the entrepreneur;
  2. rôle culture, characterized by well-defined procedures and job roles, and an emphasis on conformity. This might be found in an established BUREAUCRACY for example government administration;
  3. task culture, characterized by an emphasis on problem-solving by expert teams. Groups are formed to deal with particular problems. Once the task is completed the group may be disbanded. Here the culture is one which attaches importance to expertise, though in fact expertise may be less developed in organizations of this sort than in role culture organizations, where job roles are more specialized. Task culture places a much greater emphasis on flexibility and creativity than does role culture;
  4. person-oriented culture, characterized by an emphasis on meeting the needs of individuals in the organization. This is often found in small, ‘alternative’ organizations. It may also characterize small organizations composed mainly of PROFESSIONALS, such as small consultancy companies, where it is deemed important that individuals be given some freedom to shape their jobs so that they can pursue particular professional or other ‘acceptable’ outside interests (for example, being a local councillor).

A concern of many managers in recent years has been that the prevailing culture of their organization is inappropriate, or even obstructive, to a desired change in objectives. For instance, a role culture, where jobs are specialized and well-defined, could obstruct creativity and hence prevent an organization from becoming more entrepreneurial. As a result much attention recently has been devoted to changing cultures. It is doubtful, however, whether managers can actually achieve dramatic cultural change in the short term. Culture is influenced by a complex of factors, such as the character and background of the workforce, many of which are to some extent independent of managerial action. See MANAGEMENT STYLE. MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC, EXCELLENCE CULTURE.

References in periodicals archive ?
Swab samples of perianal lesions obtained for conventional bacterial culture are the most reliable diagnostic tool for diagnosing perianal dermatitis because they also enable detection of less common causative agents.
A great number of positive bacterial cultures must be obtained in order to enhance the favorable outcome of bacterial infections in patients with liver cirrhosis.
The specimens designed for bacterial culture were placed into the transport medium (Portagerm pylori, bioMerieux, Marcy I'Etoile, France) and then after homogenisation in 100 [micro]L of saline were inoculated on selective Pylori agar (bioMerieux) and non-selective Columbia agar enriched with 5% sheep blood (bioMerieux) [28].
Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis was based on increased ascitic fluid absolute polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) count ( = 250 cells/mm3) and /or positive ascitic fluid bacterial culture.
The bacterial culture when incubated in a flask having BHI broth and agitated at 200 rpm shaking speed showed 109 cfu/ml after 3-4 hrs incubation at 370C (Tabatabaei et al.
Because hospitals have primary responsibility for conducting bacterial testing to determine appropriate treatment, hospital laboratories routinely process blood and CSF for bacterial culture, whereas specimens for viral testing are sent to a surveillance reference laboratory (Figure).
The following bacterial cultures were tested against garlic: Lactobacillus casei, Clostridium nexile, Bifidobacterium longum and Bacteroides ovatus.
These kits are based on the alkaline denaturation method for the isolation of plasmid from bacterial culture described by Birnhoin [23, 24].
For this purpose, 100 ml of a bacterial culture was centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 10 minutes and the supernatant discarded.
However, bacterial culture is time-consuming and results of smear examination depend on the laboratory technician's skill.