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The norms and shared attitudes that pervade an ORGANIZATION. It may be expressed in symbols, rituals and the language used by organization members. It thus constitutes the distinctive characteristics of an organization. In recent years managerial interest in organizational culture has grown enormously It is believed that the culture will influence how individuals behave at work and hence will affect both individual and organizational performances.

A number of types of culture have been identified in this respect:

  1. power culture, characterized by an emphasis on personal charisma, risk-taking and a low level of respect for procedures. This might be found in a small entrepreneurial organization, where power tends to be concentrated in the entrepreneur;
  2. rôle culture, characterized by well-defined procedures and job roles, and an emphasis on conformity. This might be found in an established BUREAUCRACY for example government administration;
  3. task culture, characterized by an emphasis on problem-solving by expert teams. Groups are formed to deal with particular problems. Once the task is completed the group may be disbanded. Here the culture is one which attaches importance to expertise, though in fact expertise may be less developed in organizations of this sort than in role culture organizations, where job roles are more specialized. Task culture places a much greater emphasis on flexibility and creativity than does role culture;
  4. person-oriented culture, characterized by an emphasis on meeting the needs of individuals in the organization. This is often found in small, ‘alternative’ organizations. It may also characterize small organizations composed mainly of PROFESSIONALS, such as small consultancy companies, where it is deemed important that individuals be given some freedom to shape their jobs so that they can pursue particular professional or other ‘acceptable’ outside interests (for example, being a local councillor).

A concern of many managers in recent years has been that the prevailing culture of their organization is inappropriate, or even obstructive, to a desired change in objectives. For instance, a role culture, where jobs are specialized and well-defined, could obstruct creativity and hence prevent an organization from becoming more entrepreneurial. As a result much attention recently has been devoted to changing cultures. It is doubtful, however, whether managers can actually achieve dramatic cultural change in the short term. Culture is influenced by a complex of factors, such as the character and background of the workforce, many of which are to some extent independent of managerial action. See MANAGEMENT STYLE. MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC, EXCELLENCE CULTURE.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson
References in periodicals archive ?
There was little or no change in these properties between the OA treatment and specimens remediated with both OA extraction and bacterial culture. Results suggest that the bacterial culture increased the water-absorbing capacity of the remediated PB, since remediated PB (OA-extracted fiber subsequently exposed to B.
GRAPH 1: Distribution of bacterial culture positives after completion of procedure according to procedure order in a day % of APL Bacterial % of AD Bacterial % of IVC Bacterial culture positive culture positive culture positive 1 2 22.2 11.1 3 25 12.5 6.25 4 71.4 57.19 42.8 5 85.6 57.14 PROCEDURE ORDER IN A DAY Note: Table made from pie chart.
The dense bacterial culture is requirement for preparation of cost effective multivalent vaccines against microbial diseases of cattle and buffaloes.
(3,10) Therefore, the clinician should have a low threshold to perform bacterial culture and sensitivity studies whenever a skin and soft tissue infection is suspected.
If the index of clinical suspicion for STEC O157 is high, the stool specimen should be tested simultaneously by Stx EIA and by bacterial culture on a sorbitol-containing medium such as SMAC (7).
For example, Prellner and Rydell reported that organisms were not isolated in bacterial culture even when antibiotics were used for only a short time.
The addition of a BAP is not considered necessary for part of a standard stool bacterial culture. As many pediatric stool cultures are collected on swabs, GN or similar enrichment broth cultures are often added in this population.
The organism can be isolated from soft tissue or blood samples and grows readily on conventional bacterial culture media.
Another preliminary study of 218 samples, published in 1999 in the July/ September issue of the Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science, compared the SMFT method with traditional laboratory urinalysis and bacterial culture. SMFT had a positive test predictive value of 73%, a sensitivity of 83%, a predictive negative test value of 93%, and a specificity of 92%.
Bacterial culture and genetic sequencing from respiratory lesions identified Mycobacterium avium avium.