Some of the items after back translations not related to the original concepts therefore those were modified and rephrased by the experts.
After the process of Forward, back translation and committee approach the linguistic equivalence of the translated version of the scale was assessed on a sample of 71 bilingual adolescent students with the age range of 16-19 years, randomly selected from different schools of Karachi.
The interplay of singsing tumbuna (ancestral songs), kwaia (choral song), stringband and power band (amplified guitars/keyboard, drums) styles are discussed, illustrating the complex ways that local languages and lingua franca are shifted and mixed, how Tok Pisin registers (varieties according to use) are continually in a dialogue with back translations
to local languages (tok ples), and with English.
In the "bad" examples, the back translations
are not manifestly wrong, but rather fail to differentiate between the two competing terms.
`The back translations
of the Urdu version and original EPQ (junior) were scrutinized by the same penal experts.
* A coordinator to check back translations
against source text, negotiate over discrepant items and resubmit them to further translation and/or back translation
In order to translate the scales following procedure was used: 1) obtaining permission from the authors of the scales; 2) forward translation of the scales by at least three independent translators; 3) selecting the most appropriate translation through committee approach; 4) back translation
of the selected items into English by at least three independent translators; and 5) comparing the back translations
with the original version of the scales through committee approach.
After back translations
of the scale, a meeting of five judges (i.e.1 Associate and 2 Assistant Professors and 2 Clinical Psychologists) was held to examine the translated items with respect to any inconsistencies, mistranslations, and changes in meaning; to select the closest translations; to analyze the need for amendments in items.
(34) For reasons of space, only the back translations
of the French DV and SV have been reproduced and the French words are used in the analysis.
The company offers back translations
and reconciliation by a third-party in order to ensure complete transparency and accuracy for all medical translations completed.
In the present research, STAXI by Spielberger (1988) 44 items was translated and adapted into Urdu language to assess anger among hypertensive patients using back translation
technique and validated through correlations, reliability analysis, factor analysis and independent samples t test.
was one of the first quality control procedures developed for survey and test translation.