The costs for the translations of the questionnaire, The foreign-language interviewing as well as the back translation
of the foreign-language open data into german are to
In order to translate the scales following procedure was used: 1) obtaining permission from the authors of the scales; 2) forward translation of the scales by at least three independent translators; 3) selecting the most appropriate translation through committee approach; 4) back translation
of the selected items into English by at least three independent translators; and 5) comparing the back translations
with the original version of the scales through committee approach.
In this study, we developed a reliable, validated Urdu version of the HAM-D which shows good cross cultural validation (tested by employing back translation
, a translation committee and pre-testing).
Review of the Quality of the Back Translation
and Harmonization of conceptual discrepancies in the items of the scale.
The translation of the instrument and its transcultural adaptation to the Brazlian population consisted of the following stages: translation, semantic analysis of the items and back translation
of the instrument based on the studies by Beaton et al.
The back translation
of the consensus version was carried out by two new translators that were teachers of English language from the English language unit of TUMS, and were blinded to the study.
After eliminating inconsistencies, analyzing conceptual equivalence and making it more comprehensible for target population, direct translation was given for Back Translation
to subject and language expert, who had no knowledge about original version.
On the basis of their evaluation, one best scale of translated items was selected for back translation
This was undertaken using the back translation
method by three experienced translators familiar with psychological research.
To collect the information for the present study, the following scales were firstly adapted and translated into native language using a Back Translation
The method of back translation
is used to achieve the equivalence of the new translation version with the original version.
Mention should be made that throughout the study wherever the back translation
of Farsi translations into English is quoted, the first is Farzaneh Taheri's translation of Mrs.