The institutional device (3) mentioned above will be called automatic fiscal stabilizer (4) (AFS).
(2002), "Automatic Fiscal Stabilizers in France", IMF Working Paper, November, No.
(2001), "Automatic Fiscal Stabilizers: Implications for New Zeeland", Working Paper No.
Those advanced and emerging economies which have fiscal space will let the automatic fiscal stabilizers
to operate taking into account national circumstances and current demand conditions.
In Canada, the main automatic fiscal stabilizers are various types of tax revenues, as well as employment insurance payouts.
Automatic fiscal stabilizers are very effective in dampening an output cycle.
Together, these results showing strong ties between cyclical variation in income and federal government spending and taxes suggest the potential for the automatic fiscal stabilizers to play a quantitatively important role in the economic stabilization process.
Using the Federal Reserve Board's FRB/US quarterly econometric model, however, we find that the automatic fiscal stabilizers play a rather limited role in damping the short-run effect of aggregate demand shocks on real GDP, reducing the "multiplier" by about 10 percent, although they have a somewhat larger damping impact (in percentage terms) on personal consumption expenditures.
We use the change in the real federal funds rate as our measure of discretionary monetary policy, the change in the ratio of the high-employment surplus to trend GDP as our measure of discretionary fiscal policy, and the ratio of the difference between the actual surplus and the high-employment surplus to trend GDP as our measure of automatic fiscal stabilizers
. We find that monetary policy typically switches toward aggressive expansion very soon after the peak in economic activity.