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The use of machinery, rather than persons, to complete a task. Automation has become increasingly common with leaps in technology that occurred in the 19th and 20th centuries. Automation is thought to have increased efficiency; for example, it made mass production of goods possible. Critics contend, however, that it renders jobs obsolete, undermining workers and reducing people's knowledge of how to "do" things. See also: Industrial Revolution.
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the use of mechanical or electrical machines such as robots to undertake frequently-repeated PRODUCTION processes to make them self-regulating, thus avoiding human intervention in these processes. Automation often involves high initial capital investment but, by reducing labour costs, cuts VARIABLE COST per unit.

Automation can be applied to mass production, PRODUCTION-LINE operations which are performed in a fixed sequence with high volumes but in a relatively inflexible way, where changes in the process to accommodate product changes are difficult and costly to implement (fixed automation). Automation can also be applied to lower volume BATCH PRODUCTION type operations, allowing in this case for greater flexibility in accommodating product changes by reprogramming the numerically-controlled machine's/robot's instructions to facilitate rapid changeovers (flexible or programmable automation). See FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson


the use of mechanical or electrical machines, such as robots, to undertake frequently repeated production processes to make them self-regulating, thus minimizing or eliminating the use of labour in these processes. Automation often involves high initial capital investment but, by reducing labour costs, cuts VARIABLE COST per unit. See FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM, PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESSIVENESS, CAPITAL-LABOUR RATIO, MASS PRODUCTION, COMPUTER.
Collins Dictionary of Economics, 4th ed. © C. Pass, B. Lowes, L. Davies 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
On comparison between conventional and automated methods, it was found that the automated system detected 12 (17.4%) cases within 12 hours and 50 cases within 24 hours of incubation, while none was detected by the conventional method within 24 hours (Refer Table No.
Figure 3: Mean score of practical by manual and automated methods. Uristix Method 19.88 Benedict's Method 15.86 Note: Table made from bar graph.
However, in the automated method, the ADF values were higher than the NDF values for both feeds, which in theory is impossible, since the NDF fraction contain the ADF fraction.
Compasrison of platelet count by peripheral smear method and automated method in pregnant women.
The two capillary tubes had a smaller difference in means than did either capillary tube compared to the automated method (Table 2).
However, in recent years, most medical laboratories have moved from radioisotopic methods to fully automated methods, and such a change may pose problems, because some chemiluminescent methods lack adequate sensitivity and specificity (4).
Although the New York isolate contained the vanA resistance gene, the vancomycin MIC of the isolate appeared low when tested initially by an automated method. Additional testing at CDC indicated that Microscan[R] and Vitek[R] (bioMerieux, Hazelwood, Missouri) testing panels and cards available in the United States did not detect vancomycin resistance in this VRSA isolate.
Reiman described a completely automated method of "subtracting" sequential MRIs obtained from the same Alzheimer's patient to track changes in total brain volume over a 1-year period.
CTSS has an established online automated method of registration for their set of training workshops which deal with software programs, campus networking capabilities, etc.
Instead, using Right Hemisphere's Deep Server software solution allows a highly automated method of repurposing the Comanche 3D CAD data and integrating it directly into the courseware for training and maintenance purposes.
Once contacted, the solution provides customers with an automated method to complete transactions, or re-directs their calls for additional assistance via touch-tone or spoken commands.

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