sampling

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sampling

the selection of part of a total population of consumers or products whose behaviour or performance can be analysed, in order to make inferences about the behaviour or performance of the total population, without the difficulty and expense of undertaking a complete census of the whole population.

Samples may be chosen randomly, with every consumer or product in the population having an equal chance of being included. Random samples are most commonly used by firms in QUALITY CONTROL where they are used as a basis for selecting products, components or materials for quality testing.

Alternatively, samples may be chosen by dividing up the total population into a number of distinct sub-groups or strata, then selecting a proportionate number of consumers or products from each sub-group since this is quicker and cheaper than random sampling. In MARKETING RESEARCH and opinion polling, quota sampling is usually employed where interviewers select the particular consumers to be interviewed, choosing the numbers of these consumers in proportion to their occurrence in the total population.

Samples may be:

  1. cross-sectional, where sample observations are collected at a particular point in time, for example data on company sales and the incomes of consumers in the current year, embracing a wide range of different income groups, as a basis for investigating the relationship between sales and income;
  2. longitudinal, where sample observations are collected over a number of time periods, for example data on changes in company sales over a number of years and changes in consumer incomes over the same time periods, as a basis for investigating the relationship between sales and income. See STATISTICAL INFERENCES, QUESTIONNAIRE.
References in periodicals archive ?
The audio codec market for the headphone, headset, and wearable device application is expected to grow at the highest rate between 2016 and 2022.
In addition, the audio codec includes a hardware-based compressor/limiter that allows for higher average volume levels without causing resonance or speaker damage.
Features include full-duplex 18-bit codec functions and support for variable sample rates between 8-48k samples/s in the audio section as well as microphone and headphone switching capabilities to make the audio CODEC suitable for mobile telephony applications.
The new IDT audio codecs are also available with content protection in a 10-channel version.
The company's apt-X[R] audio codec has earned a reputation throughout the audio industry as the ultimate high-quality, low-delay audio data compression technique available.
Parametric Stereo from Coding Technologies and Philips again significantly increases the efficiency of audio codecs for stereo signals at low bit rates.
When a microphone is incorporated in a device, the audio CODEC LSI needs to be placed close to the microphone, as it digitalizes the weak signal from the microphone in a fine condition.
Widely regarded as the world's most efficient audio codec capable of delivering bandwidth economy and a DVD-like audio experience, aacPlus is the audio codec of choice for delivering high-fidelity live and on-demand audio for a variety of PC, mobile television, Internet and radio standards.
Coding Technologies' aacPlus audio codec is widely regarded as the world's most efficient audio codec.
263 and G729 video and audio codecs and will be able to utilize the H.