Hawthorne Effect

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Hawthorne Effect

The phenomenon in which subjects of study alter their behavior simply because they are being studied. The Hawthorne effect is important in marketing. For example, test audience members may unintentionally skew their responses one way or another simply because they know they are part of a test audience. The concept originated in 1950 when analysis of a study from the 1920s and 1930s saw that productivity in a factory improved during a study of employees and declined after the study's conclusion.
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An open trial evaluating an attention bias modification program for overweight adults who binge eat.
Gradually, the patient begins to focus on that stimulus instead, predicting that this is where the dot will appear - helping to normalize the attention bias pattern and reduce anxiety.
This model suggests a mutually inhibitory, directional, attention bias operating in the two cerebral hemispheres.
It discusses emotion, attention, and information processing, including basic conceptual and theoretical issues, the selection of emotional stimuli, attentional bias in emotional disorders like depression and anxiety, affective bias in attention, and attention deficits in emotional disorders; cognitive content and process in emotional disorders, including distressing intrusive thoughts, interactionist approaches to stress, self-focused attention, attention manipulations, and whether attentional disorder is the cause or consequence of emotional problems; and a new theoretical model of attention and self-regulation that explains the development and maintenance of clinical problems and accounts for laboratory data on attention bias and performance and its clinical implications.