More than one assay should be conducted and due to Ames test
limitations it should not be a standalone study in the tier.
In Ames test
the mutant strain of Salmonella typhimurium was used.
Rat fed with milk cultured with Enterococcus faecium IS-27526 significantly decreased fecal as well as urinary mutagenicity of rats as measured by the Ames test
(Tables 3 and 4).
The original Ames test
was in the public domain, but UC Berkeley has a patent pending for Ames II.
As an example, Lundy notes, the Tripartite agreement relative to testing biocompatibility of medical devices now includes the Ames test
for the mutagenicity effect, to verify whether a particular plastic material might change the shape of a cell or how it replicates.
A number of tests can be used; they include: Ames test
(bacterial reverse mutation assay), mammalian cell chromosomal aberration test, mammalian cell gene mutation test (MLA mouse lymphoma assay), and Micronucleus test.
It includes practical approaches on how to perform the tests and to interpret the results and describes a stepwise testing strategy, starting with the Ames test
The Ames test
misses around 40% of carcinogens, mainly because it lacks eukaryotic targets.
The routine use by the chemical industry of the Ames test
and related short-term tests for mutagenesis as part of new product development has undoubtedly prevented the release of carcinogenic chemicals into the environment.
What's more, Petrakis says, secretion from "8 percent or so of the women came up positive in the Ames test
," a bacterial assay to identify possible carcinogens.
An example of a service witnessing significant demand is its new microAmes test which saves pharmaceutical companies time and money by fully predicting the GLP regulatory Ames test
using milligram quantities.
That the predictive value of the Ames test
was overstated (Frickel 2004) only served to stimulate the development of short-term, in vitro tests for carcinogenicity.