Hypothesis 4(b): There will be a negative relationship between agreeableness and role ambiguity.
Research has also shown that conscientiousness moderates the impact of role clarity and ambiguity on individual well being (Miller, Griffin, & Hart, 1999).
Given the disambiguating power of context, the researchers hypothesized that languages might harness ambiguity
to reuse words - most likely, the easiest words for language processing systems.
We use a sample of 1,398 IPOs from 1998 to 2005 to measure the information in IPO prospectuses and the degree of ambiguity
in such information.
This is the subject of Brett Neilson's article, "On Ambiguity
and Ambidextrousness, Or, What Is an Innovative Action?
2005) indicate that while the literature tends to equate intolerance for ambiguity
with intolerance for uncertainty, distinction can be made between the two notions; specifically, intolerance for ambiguity
relates to current circumstances or conditions as a cause of threat, while intolerance for uncertainty refers to the prospect of having a negative outcome.
appears very likely to be problematic if the list of possible reading difficulties is considered: sentence length and word difficulty, syntactic complexity, discourse cohesion characteristics, the number of inferences required, the number of items to remember, the complexity of ideas, rhetorical structure, and dialect (Bruce and Rubin 7-8).
Using two independent samples (secondary-school athletes and club-and-university soccer players), Eys, Carton, Beauchamp, and Bray (2003a) also provided evidence for the construct validity of the scale by examining; (i) the degree of 'groupness' in perceptions of role ambiguity
; (ii) changes in perceptions of role ambiguity
over time; and (iii) the influence of player status on perceptions of role ambiguity
Accountability, Job Ambiguity
, and Employee Influence.
In succeeding decades, strategic ambiguity
became the watchword for dealing with China.
There is a growing literature investigating the effect of ambiguity
aversion on asset pricing.
Recent applications of ambiguity
to financial regulation and investment behavior emphasize the effect of ambiguity
aversion on self-selection and market size (Easley and O'Hara 2009; Zeckhauser 2006).