Shibusawa himself floated back and forth between finance and government (he was the recipient of a coveted amakudari
golden parachute from the Finance Ministry into the "private" sector in 1873 ), and used his connections transecting the osmotic membrane between economy and state to enrich himself enormously.
Parachute appointments are equivalent to "Amakudari
" (descent from heaven) in Japan.
It is hard to avoid the conclusion that, in part, these centres were designed to create amakudari
positions for police officers.
(6) Construction companies gave retired bureaucrats lucrative positions in return (which is called "amakudari
" in Japanese).
This is reinforced by the practice known as amakudari
(descent from heaven), whereby bureaucrats, following retirement from government service, descend from on high to toil in the earthly realms of business and politics, taking advantage of connections forged earlier through gakubatsu (university ties), kyodobatsu (prefecture ties), and keibatsu (marriage ties).
In Japan, the term amakudari
denotes the widespread practice of senior officials taking up positions upon retiring from government.
In a similar vein, van Rixtel (2002) also argues that an amakudari
bank can maximize its own economic rents by manipulating established relationships with monetary regulators to its competitive advantage.
(descent from heaven), in which high-level METI officials
(''descent from heaven''), the practice of giving senior regulators jobs at the helm of industry, has been stopped.
There has been consensus on aims since the 1950s, and tight-knit personal contacts are reinforced by amakudari
, revolving doors between government and business, and shared interests and ideas.
Adding to the unease were foreign press reports that, via the so-called amakudari
system, the power company and the Ministry for Economy were in bed together.
Minister eyes disbanding entities criticized for 'amakudari