They are all specified from multipotent retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) during retina development in an ordered fashion that retinal ganglion cells (GC) are born first, followed by photoreceptor cells (PRC), amacrine cells
(AC), horizontal cells (HC), and lastly by bipolar cells (BC) and Muller glial cells (MC) (Figure 4(a)) [10, 25].
(2009) Switching between transient and sustained signaling at the rod bipolar-AII amacrine cell
synapse of the mouse retina.
Assessing the function of the whole retina may be obtained with EOG (rod and RPE responses) and ERG (photoreceptors, bipolar cells, amacrine cells
, ganglion cells).
Nawa et al., "Involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in early retinal neuropathy of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats: therapeutic potential of brain-derived neurotrophic factor for dopaminergic amacrine cells
," Diabetes, vol.
Therefore, the TH protein level is a marker of dopaminergic amacrine cells
in the retina [1, 25, 31].
In addition, it participates in the regulation of the development of cholinergic amacrine cells
in mammals [22-24] and birds .
Combining these methods with the whole-cell recording configuration allows characterization of the membrane properties and synaptic inputs of both the small amacrine cells
and the large neurons in the outer cell body layer of the VL.
Hence, this component may also be modulated by disruption to inner retinal feedback as it is known that CNQX also modifies amacrine cell
Retinal radial serial sections (10 mm thick) were obtained by a cryomicrotome (Kryostat 1720, Leitz Wetzlar) to localize the RGCs, excluding the displaced amacrine cells
of the inner plexiform layer.
"There are 50 kinds of amacrine cells
, the drug cabinets of the retina, and most of them likely release multiple neurotransmitters that can influence the retinal circuit," Diamond said.
In addition, neural abnormalities such as morphological alterations in astrocytes, decreased cholinergic and dopaminergic amacrine cells
, and increased inflammatory leukocytes have also been observed in this model [10, 17, 68, 69].