For example, it is not clear how beneficiaries of Aid to Dependent Children
themselves came to think of the programs that recognized their rights, and how their conceptions clashed with those of "most people," who "venerated work."(129) Too often, changes in family structures, such as the rise in the number of two-income families, are taken for granted, whereas features uncovered by historians of families may help to place the role of parents in various circumstances within context of other pressures on the state.
Designers of the Aid to Dependent Children portion of the Social Security Act of 1935 wanted to build up the program's image by making sure its recipients behaved well.
"Second-tier" programs are poorly funded and stigmatizing, like Aid to Dependent Children (what we usually call "welfare"), and created primarily to serve mothers and children.
From Welfare to Workfare focuses on the evolution of Aid to Dependent Children from its enactment in the original (1935) Social Security Act to its demise in the (1996) Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act.
The architects of Social Security had hoped to integrate Aid to Dependent Children (ADC), an income support program for needy mothers, into a non-categorical welfare program in the 1940s.
Moreover, African-Americans came to account for a growing proportion of the postwar welfare caseload and by 1957 42% of Aid to Dependent Children
(ADC) recipients were African-American (Bureau of Public Assistance, 1960).
Aid to dependent children
. NY: Columbia University Press.
Despite war-time progress, the gap between white and black incomes had continued to widen, and the numbers of black families on Aid to Dependent Children
continued to climb during the 1960s.
In examining the relative fates of old age insurance, aid to dependent children
, and unemployment compensation, Lieberman finds that the design of social programs matters.
The rise in Aid to Dependent Children
(ADC) amidst prosperity, scandalous stories of "chiseling" and other data outraged middle-class Americans.
Instead, the standing interpretation for both mothers' pensions and Aid to Dependent Children
explains these programs as policies that supported women to stay at home.
It starts out having positive connotations and ends up meaning "grudging aid to the poor." This transformation drives this gendered history of the state's response to the needs of single mothers, a history that culminates in the Aid to Dependent Children
(ADC) provisions in the Social Security Act of 1935.