2 Abu al Hasan Ali bin Muhammad bin Habib al Al Mawardi, Al Ahkam
al Sultaniyyah wa al Wilayat al Diniyyah, trans.
Al-Qurtubi, Al-Jami'li Ahkam
al-Quran, Tafsir Al Qurtubi.
Al-Jami ' li Ahkam
Al-Quran wa Al-Mubayyin lima Tathammanahu min al-Sunnah wa aay Al-Forqan.
Orientation studies above focused on passages ahkam
/ laws of Shari'a (verses madaniyah), whereas the author in this dissertation research focuses on many verses of monotheism or the verses of Meccan surah which of course has a background in community and culture different.
Therefore we find our classical scholars writing voluminous works on ahkam
al-masbjid (the rules of the mosques) as well as ahkam
al-suq (rules of the marketplace).
Abu Bakar Ahmad Ibn Ali al-Razi al-Jassas, Ahkam
al-Qur'an (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-'Ilmiyyah, 3rd edn.
30) This paper draws examples mostly from the legal judgments of officially appointed muftis, with the exception of the works of two legal scholars - Muhammad Amin ibn Umar Ibn Abidin (ah 1198-1252/ ad 1784-1836) a scholar and unofficial mufti, and Ubaydu'llah ibn Abd al-Ghani, a scholar (but not a mufti) whose legal treatise on land, Al-Nur al-badi fi ahkam
al-aradi (The Clear Light on Lands' Judgements), dates from ad 1796.
74) In technical sense however, it means 'the expenditure of effort in seeking and arriving at rules from the various sources of law', (75) or the effort made by the Mujtahid in seeking knowledge of the ahkam
(rules) of the Shari'ah through interpretation.
125) 1915-1916'da Mahmut Esat Efendi'nin Mekteb-i Hukuk'ta okuttugu Tarih-i Ilm-i Hukuk dersinde de ayni ayrimlar vardir: "Bugun hukuk-i duvel nami altindaki sube-i ahkam
baslica sulh ve harb ile merasimden ve diplomasi teamulatiyla [pratikler] muahedattan terekkup eder.
68) Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, Ahkam
ahl al-dhimma, ed.
On the occasion ANP District President Mohammad Karim Babak, National Youth Organization Provincial General Secretary Hassan Buneri, District President Gulzar Babak, Information Secretary Ahkam
Buneri and large number of activists participated.
The schools of Quran commentary have ben diverse - philosophical [as in the case of the Tafsir al-Kabir of Imam Razi], lexical [as in the case of the Tafsir Kashaf of Zamakhshari], legalistic [as in the case of the Tafsir Ahkam
al-Quran by Abu Bakr Jassas], and so on.