175) Courts encountering claims lacking independent bases for federal jurisdiction begin their analysis by separating cases involving limitation of liability proceedings, (176) an admiralty proceeding
which allows a vessel owner without privity or knowledge of wrongful acts to limit his or her liability to the value of the vessel after such acts, from those which do not involve such a proceeding.
981 (1994), the majority of the United States Supreme Court stated that "[a]n in rem suit against a vessel is, as we have said, distinctly an admiralty proceeding
and is hence within the exclusive jurisdiction of the federal courts.
inquisitorial model customary of admiralty proceedings
in English and
Strategies for coping with inflation, endemic poverty, and the precariousness of life are revealed in probate records, Admiralty proceedings
, state papers, Guildhall collections, and the holdings of the Greater London Record Office.
19) The in rem nature of the admiralty proceedings
dispensed with the requirement of proving any underlying wrongdoing on the part of the property owner.