Told by a journalist from Ghana that many people there had "a phobia for the IMF" due to the harsh conditions of its past structural adjustment programs
in Africa and South America, Lagarde responded: "Structural adjustment?
The structural adjustment programs
introduced in many African countries during the 1980s and early 1990s placed a constraint on educational financing, many development experts have argued.
In our view, countries presently struggling with excessive deficits should implement reinforced fiscal adjustment programs
. The case for a consolidation of government finances against the background of present and prospective demographic changes remains very strong.
In our own day, when (contra Riley) longevity has yet to become the global norm, "health transitions" in most non-western countries have run up against the seemingly insurmountable barrier of Structural Adjustment Programs
. Imposed on debt-ridden governments by the US-based World Bank and International Monetary Fund from the late 1980s on wards, SAPS policy insists that free universal preventive medicine administered through low-tech clinics to which every member of a national population has ready access should be phased out and replaced by cash-for-service facilities of the sort found in free-enterprise USA.
"Structural adjustment programs
that happened throughout Latin America in the 1970s and 1980s couldn't happen in El Salvador because we were at war.
Our transparency in managing government finances has allowed us to get more money and payment terms subject to adjustment programs
that take many of our limitations into account.
In another activity, women identify the impact of structural adjustment programs
in their communities, asking "What's a woman to do when government health programs are cut?" and identifying economic policies that erode their quality of life.
These loans are tied to Structural Adjustment Programs
that include a reduction in government spending, liberalized trade policies, removing restrictions on direct foreign investment, currency devaluation, and privatization of public enterprises.
* Structural adjustment programs
, which reorient economies to benefit corporate interests while reducing spending on social programs and locally oriented production, are imposed by IFIs on severely indebted countries.
Topic areas include structural adjustment programs
, unpaid and contingent work, cutbacks in social welfare, "the global assembly line," environmental impacts on women, human rights abuses, and organizing for positive change.
This paper investigates the relationship between economic reforms, particularly the World Bank's Structural Adjustment Programs
(SAPS) and educational policies with regard to gender equity in access to schooling in Africa.
Numerous writers have suggested that International Monetary Fund (IMF) Structural Adjustment Programs
in Africa have not only damaged growth prospects for many countries, but have further worsened an already badly skewed income distribution.