Adjustment Costs

Adjustment Costs

The costs associated with making any changes. For example, one must consider adjustment costs for hiring a new employee, or the costs of lost production in the event of layoffs. All companies have adjustment costs, especially when they seek to achieve greater efficiency.
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Designing domestic policies to enhance the substantial benefits of GVC participation while addressing potential adjustment costs will help ensure trade and GVCs generate inclusive growth that benefits all," Robert Koopman, WTO Chief Economist, said.
Though adjustment costs of firms, such as hiring-and-firing and training costs, are considered to be crucial in determining the responsiveness of firms to external shocks (Hamermesh, 1993; Hamermesh and Pfann, 1996), they are not abundant and reported in literature.
'The parties, through the draft MOA, agree to shoulder adjustment costs based on actual relocation costs.
Although external competitiveness, foreignexchange reserve coverage and the economic growth outlook have benefited greatly from the devaluation and the switch to a flexible exchange rate system, the population has borne the brunt of the subsidy reform adjustment costs in the form of declining purchasing power, especially over the past year.
Moody's report indicates that, although improvements were witnessed in external competitiveness, foreign-exchange reserve coverage, and the economic growth outlook since the floatation, Egypt's population has borne the brunt of the subsidy reform adjustment costs in the form of declining purchasing power, especially over the past year.
The previous Bachelet administration's social reform agenda also posed some adjustment costs and may have weighed further on confidence due to some perceived technical issues.
Nor does the record clearly show why Gruelle chose to apply a 7.5 percent depreciation and 12 percent depreciation on the improvements and overall property that produced his estimate of $290,000 in financial impact of that obsolescence on the fair market value of the remainder after the take.<br />Call rejected Gruelle's assumptions and asserted that no adjustment costs were necessary.
[P.sub.t][[psi].sub.B][([B.sub.t] - B).sup.2]/2 is the portfolio adjustment costs, which induce the stationarity of the equilibrium dynamics in the small open economy.
As pointed out by Myers (1984) earlier, adjustment costs should be a focal point if firms expose to costs that may hinder the process to achieve the optimum leverage.
"Sectorial adjustment costs induced by the Colombian pattern of international trade, 1991-2015", is the title of the fourth paper, wherein the authors analyze the adjustment costs induced by the Colombian international trade pattern for the 1991-2015 period; they calculate marginal intra-industrial trade indexes, adjustment costs and the use of the International Adjustment Cost Space and present different types of results.
The damages sought by the Insurers included $221,861,243.69 in claims paid out pursuant to insurance policies, $305,737,641 in claims paid out pursuant to reinsurance policies, $3,186,499.40 in claims paid to airline clients through the Associated Aviation Underwriters (AAU) insurance program, $8,572,527.43 in adjustment costs and expenses incurred in connection with each covered claim under their insurance policies, $226,638 in attorneys' fees, and prejudgment interest from September 11, 2001 to the date of entry of judgment.
Excluding $1.94 million in pension adjustment costs in the 2016 span, earnings were up 27.4% on an adjusted basis.