Knowledge of the morphology of the adult acromion process
will help define the bony landmarks to be used in assisting surgeons undertaking specific operative procedures and technique.
The present study analyses the morphometry of the acromion process
of scapula, which may help orthopaedicians during surgical repair around the shoulder joint.
At first, the acromion process
, lateral epicondyle of the humerus and the middle part of wrist were identified and the longitudinal axes of arm and forearm were determined.
Electrode placement for the deltoid was at the point halfway between the lateral aspect of the acromion process
and insertion of the deltoid on the deltoid tubercle.
The upper limb length was measured as the distance from the tip of the shoulder (acromion process
) to the mid palm, just proximal to the distal crease at the third intermetacarpal space.
Serratus anterior is underactive and upper trapezius is overactive in upward scapular movement (upward, internal and posterior tilt) during the elevation.29 The resultant motion of the scapula is desynchronised with HH motion and the acromion process
does not clear the HH underneath.
It bears a facet that articulates with the acromion process
of the scapula to form the acromioclavicular joint.
The acromion process
is dorsally directed, as in other basal iguanodonts (e.g.
The acromion process
is completely broken off, but there is a portion of the base of the coracoid process present.
Allowing the scapula to downwardly rotate will decrease the strength and efficiency of the arm motion; it will also cause a pinching of the supraspinatus tendon and subacromial/subdeltoid bursa as the acromion process
of the scapula and head of the humerus approximate each other.
The ToMPAW Arm's shoulder was controlled by a joystick modified to provide force feedback to the user, which sensed movement of the acromion process
. Neither the Edinburgh nor the ToMPAW Arms were introduced commercially.
(i) At shoulder joint, the skin samples were obtained slightly lateral to surface projection overlying the acromion process