The resulting estimates of the impact of exchange rates on prices of domestically produced automobiles are an indirect test of whether the voluntary export restraints
Lastly, immiserizing growth never arises in the presence of voluntary export restraints
if there is a decrease in import demand after growth.
Resort to grey-area measures such as voluntary export restraints
(VERs) has in the past provided a way out but these transfer large quota rents to exporters and have therefore come to be regarded as costly to the importing country.
Non-automatic licenses, quotas/prohibitions, restraints under the MFA, voluntary export restraints
, and single channel (state monopoly) for imports are included in this NTM category.
Nontariff barriers like voluntary export restraints
increased, as did the number of "harassment grievances" filed under the GATT.
trade laws would be fully enforced after a global agreement on voluntary export restraints
expired March 31.
President Bush announced in the fall of 1989 that a global program of voluntary export restraints
would lapse on March 31, 1992.
GM SPOKESPERSON STATEMENT ON JAPANESE VOLUNTARY EXPORT RESTRAINTS (VERs)
As was the case under the voluntary export restraints
to the U.
The Government of Japan soon will consider the issue of its voluntary export restraints
on autos shipped to the United States for the fiscal year beginning April 1, 1992.